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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 27-33

Utility of QuantiFERON tuberculosis gold-in-tube test for detecting latent tuberculosis infection among close household contacts of confirmed tuberculosis patients in Accra, Ghana

1 Department of Bacteriology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Ghana, UK
2 Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana, UK
3 Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK

Correspondence Address:
Gloria Ivy Mensah
Department of Bacteriology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, P.O. Box LG 581, Legon, Accra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2212-5531.201891

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Objective/Background: Introduction of the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays with their higher sensitivity and specificity over the traditional tuberculin skin test has improved testing for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). None of the IFN-γ release assays has ever been used to screen for LTBI in Ghana. This study set out to determine the utility of the QuantiFERON TB Gold-in-Tube (QFT-GIT) test for the diagnosis of LTBI among close household contacts of newly diagnosed sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patents in Accra, Ghana, and the associated risk factors for a positive QFT-GIT test. Materials and Methods: Close household contacts of newly diagnosed sputum smear-positive patients receiving anti-TB therapy from three hospitals in Accra were recruited, after providing written informed consent, between April 2012 and December 2014. In addition to demographic details, 2 mL of blood was collected from all participants for the QFT-GIT test for LTBI diagnosis. Results: Out of 112 eligible consenting participants, the QFT-GIT test was performed for 100 participants. The prevalence of LTBI (QFT-GIT positive) was 65%, with 32% being QFT-GIT negative and 3% indeterminate results. Contacts aged >15 years were more likely to be QFT-GIT positive than those aged >15 years, regardless of their Bacillus Calmette–Guerin status. There was significantly higher QFT-GIT test positivity in adult contacts who were parents, siblings, or spouses to index cases than in child contacts (P = 0.0016, P = 0.04, and P = 0.0003, respectively). Conclusion: The QFT-GIT test will be a useful tool for screening of TB contacts for LTBI in Ghana.

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