|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 177-183
Contribution of putative efflux pump genes to isoniazid resistance in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Anshika Narang, Astha Giri, Shraddha Gupta, Kushal Garima, Mridula Bose, Mandira Varma-Basil
Department of Microbiology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India
|Date of Web Publication||19-May-2017|
Department of Microbiology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, New Delhi - 110 007
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Isoniazid (INH) resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been mainly attributed to mutations in katG (64%) and inhA (19%). However, 20%–30% resistance to INH cannot be explained by mutations alone. Hence, other mechanisms besides mutations may play a significant role in providing drug resistance. Here, we explored the role of 24 putative efflux pump genes conferring INH-resistance in M. tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: Real-time expression profiling of the efflux pump genes was performed in five INH-susceptible and six high-level INH-resistant clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis exposed to the drug. Isolates were also analyzed for mutations in katG and inhA. Results: Four high-level INH-resistant isolates (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥2.5 mg/L) with mutations at codon 315 (AGC-ACC) of katG showed upregulation of one of the efflux genes Rv1634, Rv0849, efpA, or p55. Another high-level INH-resistant isolate (MIC 1.5 mg/L), with no mutations at katG or inhA overexpressed 8/24 efflux genes, namely, Rv1273c, Rv0194, Rv1634, Rv1250, Rv3823c, Rv0507, jefA, and p55. Five of these, namely, Rv0194, Rv1634, Rv1250, Rv0507, and p55 were induced only in resistant isolates. Conclusion: The high number of efflux genes overexpressed in an INH-resistant isolate with no known INH resistance associated mutations, suggests a role for efflux pumps in resistance to this antituberculous agent, with the role of Rv0194 and Rv0507 in INH resistance being reported for the first time.
Keywords: Efflux pumps, isoniazid resistance, Mycobacterium tuberculosis
|How to cite this article:|
Narang A, Giri A, Gupta S, Garima K, Bose M, Varma-Basil M. Contribution of putative efflux pump genes to isoniazid resistance in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Int J Mycobacteriol 2017;6:177-83
|How to cite this URL:|
Narang A, Giri A, Gupta S, Garima K, Bose M, Varma-Basil M. Contribution of putative efflux pump genes to isoniazid resistance in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Int J Mycobacteriol [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Jan 21];6:177-83. Available from: http://www.ijmyco.org/text.asp?2017/6/2/177/206598
| Introduction|| |
Despite the availability of a battery of drugs to fight tuberculosis (TB), the disease claims a larger number of lives than any other infectious disease. The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB has added a new challenge to this old and persistent disease. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, drug resistance is an outcome of multiple mechanisms operating simultaneously. Resistance to isoniazid (INH), an important first-line anti-TB agent, is also a complex process. Mutations in several genes, including katG, ahpC, inhA, kasA, and ndh, have all been associated with INH resistance. Of these, mutations in katG and inhA are considered to be the main cause of INH resistance.,, Apart from this most common resistance mechanism, a wide array of efflux mechanisms mediated by several proteins contributes in a major way to intrinsic resistance to drugs, including INH.,
A number of efflux pumps have been shown to be involved in INH resistance.,,, It has been demonstrated that efflux systems could be induced by prolonged exposure of M. tuberculosis to INH, resulting in an increased resistance phenotype. Further, gene knockout experiments have shown that the iniA gene is essential for the activity of an efflux pump that confers resistance to INH and ethambutol (EMB) in M. tuberculosis. Gene expression studies by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis showed that various major facilitator superfamily (MFS) efflux pump genes (efpA[Rv2846c], Rv1258c, jefA [Rv2459], and P55 [Rv1410c]) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily transporters (Rv1819c and pstB [Rv0933]) were overexpressed in the presence of INH.,,, Collectively, these results suggest that INH-resistance in M. tuberculosis may be attributed to mutations in known genes and may also be influenced or modulated by efflux-related mechanisms. However, all cases of INH resistance can still not be explained.
In the present study, we investigated the expression levels of 24 membrane transporter genes, annotated as probable/hypothetical in the M. tuberculosis genome  and available at http://www.tuberculist.epfl.ch/, in INH-susceptible and -resistant M. tuberculosis clinical isolates under INH stress. The efflux activity in the clinical isolates was also studied in the presence of efflux pump inhibitors verapamil, which is shown to effect several bacterial ABC efflux pumps , and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), which not only inhibits the activity of efflux pumps of class MFS ,, but also leads to inhibition of activity of adenosine triphosphate synthase and affects ABC superfamily pumps. For a holistic view on INH resistance, we also investigated the clinical isolates for mutations known to be responsible for 60%–90% of INH resistance,,, in regions of katG and inhA. The aim was to further the existing knowledge about the role of efflux pumps in INH resistance in M. tuberculosis.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Selection of putative efflux genes and synthesis of primers
Ten putative efflux genes predicted as membrane transporters of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and selected on the basis of the presence of high-confidence MDR mutations (HCM) in a previous study from our laboratory, were included in the study. The HCM were predicted after comparative analysis with the gene sequence of an MDR strain of M. tuberculosis, available at the Open Source Drug Discovery (www.osdd.net). Additional ten genes, bioinformatically identified to be putative drug transporters (http://tuberculist.epfl.ch/) and four efflux pump genes previously shown to respond with higher expression under INH stress, i.e., jefA, efpA, p55, and pstB were also included [Table 1].,,, The selected genes represented the three classes of efflux pumps, i.e., ABC superfamily, MFS, and resistance nodulation division (RND) superfamily [Table 1].
|Table 1: Primer sequences of the genes used in the quantitative reverse transcription.polymerase chain reaction assays|
Click here to view
Sequences of putative efflux genes, namely, Rv1272c, Rv1456c, Rv1457c, Rv1686c, Rv1687c, Rv0842, Rv0849, Rv0876c, Rv2265, Rv2456c, jefA, and the housekeeping gene rrs were retrieved from http://genolist.pasteur.fr/Tuberculist/. The primers were designed using Gene Runner Version 3.01 Software (Copyright: √Frank Buquicchio and Michael Spruyt) [Table 1]. Previously published primer sequences were used for efflux pumps Rv1273c, Rv1458c, Rv0194, Rv1819c, Rv1634, Rv1250, Rv1877, Rv0676c, Rv3823c, Rv0507, efpA, p55, pstB,, and the housekeeping gene sigA. The desired sequences were synthesized by Sigma-Aldrich (India).
Bacterial strains, growth conditions, and reagents
The reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv and 11 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were obtained from Department of Microbiology at Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India. The isolates were characterized by niacin, nitrate and catalase tests, PCR restriction analysis, IS6110 typing, and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number of tandem repeat typing.
The mycobacterial strains were grown in Middlebrook 7H9 Broth (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with oleic acid, albumin bovine fraction V, dextrose, catalase (Difco), and 0.2% glycerol at 37°C. Lowenstein–Jensen (LJ) medium was used for maintenance of cultures and drug susceptibility assays. Streptomycin (SM), INH, rifampicin (RIF), EMB, verapamil, and CCCP were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). The drugs and efflux pump inhibitors were freshly prepared and filter sterilized before use.
Drug susceptibility profile of clinical isolates
The drug susceptibility profile of the isolates to SM, INH, RIF, and EMB was evaluated by 1% proportion drug susceptibility testing (PDST) using LJ medium with the following concentrations: SM, 4 μg/mL; INH, 0.2 μg/mL; RIF, 40 μg/mL; and EMB, 2 μg/mL.
Minimum inhibitory concentration determination
Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of INH and the efflux pump inhibitors, for the clinical isolates under study, were determined by microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) performed in 96-well U-bottom plates as described previously, with minor modifications. The concentration for MIC testing ranged from 0.1–20 mg/L for INH; 5–120 mg/L for verapamil; and 0.1–1 mg/L for CCCP. Stock solutions of INH and verapamil were prepared in deionized water and CCCP in dimethyl sulfoxide. Growth controls (medium containing inoculum but no antibiotic) and sterility controls (medium without inoculum and antibiotic) were also included in the assay. Each concentration of drug was tested in triplicates, and the procedure was repeated a minimum of three times.
The MICs of INH were also calculated in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations (½ MIC) of verapamil and CCCP, as described previously.
In vitro drug exposure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical strains and H37Rv to isoniazid
M. tuberculosis H37Rv and the clinical isolates were cultured in flasks containing Middlebrook 7H9 medium supplemented with 0.2% glycerol and 0.05% Tween 80. The freshly growing culture of each isolate at mid-log phase (OD600-0.5) was exposed to a subinhibitory concentration of INH (½ MIC) [Table 2] and incubated at 37°C for 24 h as described previously. The unexposed culture was taken as control. The cells were harvested by centrifugation at room temperature at 8000 rpm for 10 min, and total RNA was extracted using the RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany), according to the manufacturer's instructions and subsequently treated with DNase I (Thermo Fischer Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA, USA). The quantity and quality of the RNA extracted from each condition were assessed by virtual gel electrophoresis on the DNR Bio-Imaging Systems (MiniLumi) as well as by spectrophotometric measurement of the A260/A280 ratio. PCR amplification of the hsp65 gene was performed as an additional quality control measure to assess possible DNA contamination, using the total RNA as a template. Potential amplified products were assessed by gel electrophoresis on ethidium bromide-stained 1.5% agarose gel. Only RNA extracts with no visible amplified product were used for subsequent experiments. The cDNA was synthesized using random hexamer primers provided with the first strand cDNA synthesis kit (Fermentas Life Sciences, Lithuania) as per the manufacturer's instructions.
|Table 2: Minimum inhibitory concentration of isoniazid in the presence and absence of efflux pump inhibitors|
Click here to view
Expression study of putative efflux pump genes by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction
Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the expression of putative drug efflux genes using QuantiTect SYBR Green Master Mix Kit (Roche Applied Science, Indianapolis, USA) in a LightCycler 480 II Real-Time PCR System (Roche Applied Science, Indianapolis, USA). The housekeeping sigma factor gene sigA and 16S ribosomal RNA gene rrs were used as internal controls in qRT-PCR assays., Melting curve analysis was performed after each run in a LightCycler 480 II instrument to confirm the specificity of the primers. Each qRT-PCR experiment was performed on duplicate biological samples which were further assayed in triplicates. The starting amounts of cDNA for the amplification of efflux genes and the reference genes were equalized to 0.15 ng/μl for each sample. Relative quantification in clinical isolates was performed to determine overexpression of efflux genes in cultures exposed to drug stress as compared to unexposed cultures, by 2-ΔΔCt method. The data were analyzed using the built-in quantification software. A relative expression equal to one indicated that the expression level was identical to the control and a fold change ≥2.5 was considered as significant overexpression.
Sequencing for mutation analysis
The resistance determining regions of katG and inhA were sequenced in the clinical isolates studied (n = 11). Primer sequences used for amplification of regions of katG and inhA were as given by Hazbón et al. PCR amplicons of all clinical isolates were commercially sequenced by M/s I st Base Asia, Malaysia.
| Results|| |
Drug susceptibility profile of clinical isolates
For the study, 11 clinical isolates were used. Of these, five isolates (EP2-S1-15 to EP2-S5-15) were pan-susceptible, five isolates (EP2-R1-15 to EP2-R5-15) were resistant to all the first-line drugs, i.e., SM, INH, RIF, and EMB, and one isolate (EP2-R6-15) was monoresistant to SM.
Minimum inhibitory concentrations of isoniazid and the effect of efflux pump inhibitors on minimum inhibitory concentrations of the clinical isolates
The MICs to INH ranged from 0.007 to 0.2 mg/L in the pan-susceptible isolates (n = 5). In 4/5 of the susceptible isolates (EP2-S1-15, EP2-S3-15 to EP2-S5-15), the presence of verapamil led to 2–8-fold decrease in the MICs of INH. The addition of CCCP resulted into 2–16-fold decrease in all the susceptible isolates [Table 2].
In the resistant isolates, MICs to INH varied from 2.5 - 10 mg/L. The MICs of INH decreased 2-fold in the presence of verapamil, in all the resistant isolates. Two- to eight-fold reduction was observed in the MICs of INH in 3/5 resistant isolates (EP2-R1-15, EP2-R4-15, EP2-R5-15) when CCCP was supplemented [Table 2].
For isolate EP2-R6-15 (found INH-susceptible by PDST on repeated testing), MIC of INH was 1.25 mg/L [Table 2]. MIC of INH in this isolate decreased 2-fold in the presence of verapamil and 8-fold in the presence of CCCP.
Mutations in clinical isolates
Regions of katG and inhA were sequenced for mutations related to INH resistance. None of the susceptible isolates had mutations at katG or inhA. All the five MDR isolates studied, had a mutation at codon 315 (AGC-ACC) in katG [Table 3], there were no mutations in inhA. Although isolate EP2-R6-15 had relatively higher MIC for INH (1.25 mg/L) than the susceptible isolates, it did not have any mutations in katG or inhA.
|Table 3: Correlation between minimum inhibitory concentrations of isoniazid, mutations in katG and inhA, and efflux genes overexpressed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates|
Click here to view
Efflux pump expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates
All the INH-susceptible isolates overexpressed one or more putative efflux pump genes under INH stress [Table 3]. The efflux pump gene efpA alone was overexpressed by two INH-susceptible isolates (EP2-S1-15 and EP2-S3-15). The remaining INH-susceptible isolates (n = 3) overexpressed ≥3 efflux pumps.
Of the INH-resistant isolates, four INH-resistant isolates (EP2-R1-15, EP2-R3-15 to EP2-R5-15) overexpressed only one efflux pump gene, i.e., Rv1634, Rv0849, efpA, or p55. The isolate EP2-R6-15 overexpressed 8 of the 24 efflux pump genes. Of these, the genes Rv0194, Rv1634, Rv1250, Rv0507, and pstB had not been overexpressed in any of the susceptible isolates [Table 3].
| Discussion|| |
The intrinsic resistance of M. tuberculosis to most antibiotics is generally attributed to the low permeability of the mycobacterial cell wall because of its specific lipid-rich composition and structure. This low permeability, which limits drug uptake, seems to be one of the main factors involved in drug resistance. In addition to the unique structure of mycobacteria, mutations of the drug target genes are known as important causes of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. Velayati et al. have also highlighted the possibility of sequential mutations in MDR-TB strains that showed resistance to second-line drugs.
Mutations in katG and inhA or more frequently in its promoter region have been shown to be the main cause for INH resistance.,, Globally, 64% and in India 52%–91%,,,,, of all observed phenotypic INH resistance were associated with the katG 315 mutation. inhA mutation (-15C→T) is the second most frequently observed mutation worldwide, reported among 19% of phenotypically resistant isolates leading to low-level INH resistance. This mutation has been found to be associated with INH resistance in 9.1% of INH-resistant cases in an Indian study. Other less common mutations related to INH resistance, in the genes kasA, ahpC, and ndh, are either accompanied by other common mutations or are also found in susceptible isolates.,,,,,, Although mutations are the common cause of resistance, it is not possible to explain all cases of clinically observed multiple-drug resistance with mutations in the target genes.
Since the first evidence of active efflux being involved in antibiotic resistance, efflux mechanisms have been recognized to be major players in bacterial drug resistance,, which is a great cause of concern in the numerous pathogenic strains that have developed MDR phenotypes. The ability of MDR transporters to pump drugs out of the cell helps bacteria to escape conventional antibiotic therapies. They, therefore, constitute potentially valuable targets in the search for new inhibitors restoring the efficacy of conventional treatment.
In the present study, we compared the expression levels of 24 genes encoding putative drug efflux transporters under INH stress, in five INH-sensitive and six INH-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates. Of the six INH-resistant isolates, five showed upregulation of 1–8 efflux pump genes. Each of these isolates showed high-level resistance to INH (MIC 1.25–10 mg/L). Mutation analysis of the genes katG and inhA showed the presence of mutation 315 (AGC-ACC) in the katG gene of 4/5 (80%) of these isolates. Interestingly, the four isolates with mutations in katG gene showed upregulation of only one efflux pump each and the isolate without any mutation at katG or inhA (EP2-R6-15) showed upregulation of eight efflux pump genes.
One of the high-level INH-resistant isolates (MIC: 10 mg/L) from our panel (EP2-R5-15) showed overexpression of Rv0849. However, Rv0849 was also overexpressed in one of the INH-susceptible isolate (EP2-S5-15). Both these isolates showed a 2-fold reduction in MIC of INH in the presence of verapamil and CCCP. Overexpression of Rv0849 has also been observed in an earlier study, in an isolate having defined mutations for INH resistance, namely, katG 298 (TTG-TGG) and inhA-15 (C-T). In the same study, Li et al. showed that Rv1634 was overexpressed in a wild-type strain. Contrary to their observation, in the present study, Rv1634 was found overexpressed only in high-level INH-resistant isolates (n = 2). One of these, with MIC 2.5 mg/L had a mutation at codon 315 (AGC-ACC) of the katG gene (EP2-R1-15). In the presence of verapamil and CCCP, MIC of INH was reduced 2-fold in this isolate, confirming the role of efflux pumps in INH resistance in the isolate. The second INH-resistant isolate (EP2-R6-15) with overexpression of Rv1634, did not have mutations at katG or inhA. MIC of INH in this isolate was reduced 2-fold in the presence of verapamil, and a drastic 8-fold reduction was seen in the presence of CCCP. Similarly, upregulation of Rv1634 has been reported in XDR-TB strains rather than drug-susceptible strains by Kanji et al. The same group of investigators also reported three XDR-TB isolates wild type for rpsL, rrs, gidB, or drrA, having a mutation at position 1839306 in Rv1634.
The isolate EP2-R3-15 showed upregulation of the efflux gene p55 and a 2-fold reduction in the MIC of INH, in the presence of verapamil. A susceptible isolate EP2-S5-15 also showed an increase in the expression of p55 and a 2-fold reduction in the MIC of INH, in the presence of verapamil and CCCP. The gene p55 (Rv1410c) encodes for a multidrug efflux pump of the MFS family in M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis and has been observed to confer resistance to SM and tetracycline. In the study by Li et al., the expression of p55 was found higher in MDR isolates than pansusceptible isolates. However, similar to our study, Rodrigues et al. found p55 to be upregulated in M. tuberculosis susceptible isolates.
In our study, efpA was overexpressed in one INH-resistant isolate (EP2-R4-15) and three INH-susceptible isolates (EP2-S1-15, EP2-S3-15, and EP2-S5-15). Contrary to our findings, Gupta et al. emphasized the increase in expression of efpA under INH stress only in INH-resistant isolates.
Surprisingly, the isolate EP2-R6-15, with high-level resistance to INH by MABA (MIC 1.25 mg/L), though susceptible to INH by PDST and no mutations at katG or inhA, showed overexpression of eight efflux genes, i.e., Rv1273c, Rv0194, Rv1634, Rv1250, Rv3823, Rv0507, jefA, and pstB, in response to INH stress. Of these, Rv0194, Rv1634, Rv1250, Rv0507, and pstB were overexpressed only in INH-resistant isolates [Table 3]. The study by Li et al. also demonstrated that under INH stress, efflux pumps Rv1250, and pstB were overexpressed in addition to jefA (Rv2459) and p55 in one MDR isolate that did not have mutations associated with INH resistance.
| Conclusions|| |
This study associated efflux genes Rv0194, Rv1634, Rv1250, Rv0507, and pstB with INH resistance. Of these, the role of Rv0194 and Rv0507 in INH resistance has been observed for the first time.
Financial support and sponsorship
This work was supported by a grant from the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India: No. BT/PR1597/MED/29/308/2011. Senior Research Fellowship to Anshika Narang was provided by Indian Council of Medical Research, Delhi, from the Project No. 80/697/2011-ECD-I.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Balganesh M, Dinesh N, Sharma S, Kuruppath S, Nair AV, Sharma U. Efflux pumps of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
play a significant role in antituberculosis activity of potential drug candidates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012;56:2643-51.
Ramaswamy SV, Reich R, Dou SJ, Jasperse L, Pan X, Wanger A, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes associated with isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47:1241-50.
Silva MS, Senna SG, Ribeiro MO, Valim AR, Telles MA, Kritski A, et al.
Mutations in katG, inhA, and ahpC genes of Brazilian isoniazid-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41:4471-4.
Hazbón MH, Brimacombe M, Bobadilla del Valle M, Cavatore M, Guerrero MI, Varma-Basil M, et al.
Population genetics study of isoniazid resistance mutations and evolution of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50:2640-9.
De Rossi E, Arrigo P, Bellinzoni M, Silva PA, Martín C, Aínsa JA, et al.
The multidrug transporters belonging to major facilitator superfamily in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
. Mol Med 2002;8:714-24.
De Rossi E, Aínsa JA, Riccardi G. Role of mycobacterial efflux transporters in drug resistance: An unresolved question. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2006;30:36-52.
Wilson M, DeRisi J, Kristensen HH, Imboden P, Rane S, Brown PO, et al.
Exploring drug-induced alterations in gene expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
by microarray hybridization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999;96:12833-8.
Gupta AK, Chauhan DS, Srivastava K, Das R, Batra S, Mittal M, et al.
Estimation of efflux mediated multi-drug resistance and its correlation with expression levels of two major efflux pumps in mycobacteria. J Commun Dis 2006;38:246-54.
Jiang X, Zhang W, Zhang Y, Gao F, Lu C, Zhang X, et al.
Assessment of efflux pump gene expression in a clinical isolate Mycobacterium tuberculosis
by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Microb Drug Resist 2008;14:7-11.
Gupta AK, Reddy VP, Lavania M, Chauhan DS, Venkatesan K, Sharma VD, et al.
JefA (Rv2459), a drug efflux gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
confers resistance to isoniazid and ethambutol. Indian J Med Res 2010;132:176-88.
] [Full text]
Viveiros M, Portugal I, Bettencourt R, Victor TC, Jordaan AM, Leandro C, et al.
Isoniazid-induced transient high-level resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002;46:2804-10.
Colangeli R, Helb D, Sridharan S, Sun J, Varma-Basil M, Hazbón MH, et al.
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis
iniA gene is essential for activity of an efflux pump that confers drug tolerance to both isoniazid and ethambutol. Mol Microbiol 2005;55:1829-40.
Cole ST, Brosch R, Parkhill J, Garnier T, Churcher C, Harris D, et al.
Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
from the complete genome sequence. Nature 1998;393:537-44.
Singh M, Jadaun GP, Ramdas, Srivastava K, Chauhan V, Mishra R, et al.
Effect of efflux pump inhibitors on drug susceptibility of ofloxacin resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
isolates. Indian J Med Res 2011;133:535-40.
] [Full text]
Viveiros M, Martins M, Rodrigues L, Machado D, Couto I, Ainsa J, et al.
Inhibitors of mycobacterial efflux pumps as potential boosters for anti-tubercular drugs. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2012;10:983-98.
Banerjee SK, Bhatt K, Rana S, Misra P, Chakraborti PK. Involvement of an efflux system in mediating high level of fluoroquinolone resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis
. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996;226:362-8.
Mahamoud A, Chevalier J, Alibert-Franco S, Kern WV, Pagès JM. Antibiotic efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria: The inhibitor response strategy. J Antimicrob Chemother 2007;59:1223-9.
Park JW, Lee SY, Yang JY, Rho HW, Park BH, Lim SN, et al.
Effect of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) on the dimerization of lipoprotein lipase. Biochim Biophys Acta 1997;1344:132-8.
Garima K, Pathak R, Tandon R, Rathor N, Sinha R, Bose M, et al.
Differential expression of efflux pump genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
in response to varied subinhibitory concentrations of antituberculosis agents. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2015;95:155-61.
Open Source Drug Discovery; 2015. Available from: http://www.osdd.net
. [Last accessed on 2013 Apr 09].
Li G, Zhang J, Guo Q, Jiang Y, Wei J, Zhao LL, et al.
Efflux pump gene expression in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
clinical isolates. PLoS One 2015;10:e0119013.
Kent PT, Kubica GP. Public Health Mycobacteriology: A Guide for the Level III Laboratory. Atlanta: Centers for Diseases Control; 1985.
Varma-Basil M, Garima K, Pathak R, Dwivedi SK, Narang A, Bhatnagar A, et al.
Development of a novel PCR restriction analysis of the hsp65 gene as a rapid method to screen for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis
complex and nontuberculous mycobacteria in high-burden countries. J Clin Microbiol 2013;51:1165-70.
van Embden JD, Cave MD, Crawford JT, Dale JW, Eisenach KD, Gicquel B, et al.
Strain identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
by DNA fingerprinting: Recommendations for a standardized methodology. J Clin Microbiol 1993;31:406-9.
Supply P, Allix C, Lesjean S, Cardoso-Oelemann M, Rüsch-Gerdes S, Willery E, et al.
Proposal for standardization of optimized mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44:4498-510.
Franzblau SG, Witzig RS, McLaughlin JC, Torres P, Madico G, Hernandez A, et al.
Rapid, low-technology MIC determination with clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis
isolates by using the microplate alamar blue assay. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:362-6.
Louw GE, Warren RM, Gey van Pittius NC, Leon R, Jimenez A, Hernandez-Pando R, et al.
Rifampicin reduces susceptibility to ofloxacin in rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
through efflux. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011;184:269-76.
Manganelli R, Dubnau E, Tyagi S, Kramer FR, Smith I. Differential expression of 10 sigma factor genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
. Mol Microbiol 1999;31:715-24.
Peñuelas-Urquides K, González-Escalante L, Villarreal-Treviño L, Silva-Ramírez B, Gutiérrez-Fuentes DJ, Mojica-Espinosa R, et al.
Comparison of gene expression profiles between pansensitive and multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
. Curr Microbiol 2013;67:362-71.
Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. Methods 2001;25:402-8.
Niederweis M. Mycobacterial porins – New channel proteins in unique outer membranes. Mol Microbiol 2003;49:1167-77.
Velayati AA, Masjedi MR, Farnia P, Tabarsi P, Ghanavi J, Ziazarifi AH, et al.
Emergence of new forms of totally drug-resistant tuberculosis bacilli: Super extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis or totally drug-resistant strains in Iran. Chest 2009;136:420-5.
Seifert M, Catanzaro D, Catanzaro A, Rodwell TC. Genetic mutations associated with isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
: A systematic review. PLoS One 2015;10:e0119628.
Negi SS, Anand R, Pasha ST, Gupta S, Basir SF, Khare S, et al.
Molecular characterization of mutation associated with rifampicin and isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
isolates. Indian J Exp Biol 2006;44:547-53.
Gupta A, Prakash P, Singh SK, Anupurba S. Rapid genotypic detection of rpoB and katG gene mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
clinical isolates from Northern India as determined by MAS-PCR. J Clin Lab Anal 2013;27:31-7.
Yadav R, Sethi S, Dhatwalia SK, Gupta D, Mewara A, Sharma M. Molecular characterisation of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
isolates from North India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2013;17:251-7.
Sharma S, Madan M, Agrawal C, Asthana AK. Genotype MTBDR plus assay for molecular detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2014;57:423-6.
] [Full text]
Ravibalan T, Samrot AV, Maruthai K, Vallayyachari K, Surendar K, Muthaiah M. Evaluation of multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of katG
(S315T) gene mutation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
isolates from Puducherry, South India. J Pure Appl Microbiol 2015;9:2339-45.
Unissa AN, Selvakumar N, Narayanan S, Suganthi C, Hanna LE. Investigation of Ser315 substitutions within katG gene in isoniazid-resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
from South India. Biomed Res Int 2015;2015:257983.
Sherman DR, Mdluli K, Hickey MJ, Arain TM, Morris SL, Barry CE 3rd
, et al.
Compensatory ahpC gene expression in isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
. Science 1996;272:1641-3.
Lee AS, Lim IH, Tang LL, Telenti A, Wong SY. Contribution of kasA analysis to detection of isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
in Singapore. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999;43:2087-9.
Piatek AS, Telenti A, Murray MR, El-Hajj H, Jacobs WR Jr., Kramer FR, et al.
Genotypic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
in two distinct populations using molecular beacons: Implications for rapid susceptibility testing. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000;44:103-10.
Cardoso RF, Cardoso MA, Leite CQ, Sato DN, Mamizuka EM, Hirata RD, et al.
Characterization of ndh gene of isoniazid resistant and susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis
isolates from Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2007;102:59-61.
McMurry L, Petrucci RE Jr., Levy SB. Active efflux of tetracycline encoded by four genetically different tetracycline resistance determinants in Escherichia coli
. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1980;77:3974-7.
Nikaido H. Prevention of drug access to bacterial targets: Permeability barriers and active efflux. Science 1994;264:382-8.
Levy SB. Active efflux, a common mechanism for biocide and antibiotic resistance. Symp Ser Soc Appl Microbiol 2002;92 Suppl:65S-71S.
Lomovskaya O, Watkins WJ. Efflux pumps: Their role in antibacterial drug discovery. Curr Med Chem 2001;8:1699-711.
Kanji A, Hasan R, Zaver A, Ali A, Imtiaz K, Ashraf M, et al.
Alternate efflux pump mechanism may contribute to drug resistance in extensively drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
. Int J Mycobacteriol 2016;5 Suppl 1:S97-8.
Kanji A, Hasan R, Zhang Y, Shi W, Imtiaz K, Iqbal K, et al.
Increased expression of efflux pump genes in extensively drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
. Int J Mycobacteriol 2016;5 Suppl 1:S150.
Rodrigues L, Machado D, Couto I, Amaral L, Viveiros M. Contribution of efflux activity to isoniazid resistance in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis
complex. Infect Genet Evol 2012;12:695-700.
Gupta AK, Katoch VM, Chauhan DS, Sharma R, Singh M, Venkatesan K, et al.
Microarray analysis of efflux pump genes in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
during stress induced by common anti-tuberculous drugs. Microb Drug Resist 2010;16:21-8.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]
|This article has been cited by|
||Genome-Wide Transcriptional Responses of Mycobacterium to Antibiotics
| ||Julien Briffotaux,Shengyuan Liu,Brigitte Gicquel |
| ||Frontiers in Microbiology. 2019; 10 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Design, synthesis, in silico and in vitro evaluation of novel diphenyl ether derivatives as potential antitubercular agents
| ||Ashutosh Prasad Tiwari,B. Sridhar,Helena I. Boshoff,Kriti Arora,G. Gautham Shenoy,K. E. Vandana,G. Varadaraj Bhat |
| ||Molecular Diversity. 2019; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Possible Binding of Piperine in Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA Polymerase and Rifampin Synergism
| ||Letícia Sayuri Murase,João Vítor Perez de Souza,Jean Eduardo Meneguello,Flavio Augusto Vicente Seixas,Laíse Adriane Hegeto,Regiane Bertin de Lima Scodro,Vera Lucia Dias Siqueira,Katiany Rizzieri Caleffi Ferracioli,Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso |
| ||Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2019; 63(11) |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Recent updates on drug resistance in
| ||R. Singh,S.P. Dwivedi,U.S. Gaharwar,R. Meena,P. Rajamani,T. Prasad |
| ||Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2019; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Scrutinizing the drug resistance mechanism of multi- and extensively-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis: mutations versus efflux pumps
| ||Hasan Ghajavand,Mansour Kargarpour Kamakoli,Sharareh Khanipour,Shahin Pourazar Dizaji,Morteza Masoumi,Fatemeh Rahimi Jamnani,Abolfazl Fateh,Mehdi Yaseri,Seyed Davar Siadat,Farzam Vaziri |
| ||Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control. 2019; 8(1) |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Altered drug efflux under iron deprivation unveils abrogated MmpL3 driven mycolic acid transport and fluidity in mycobacteria
| ||Rahul Pal,Saif Hameed,Zeeshan Fatima |
| ||BioMetals. 2018; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis converts isoniazid to the active drug in a Wayne’s model of dormancy
| ||Sajith Raghunandanan,Leny Jose,Ramakrishnan Ajay Kumar |
| ||The Journal of Antibiotics. 2018; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Overexpression of eis without a mutation in promoter region of amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical strain
| ||Angkanang Sowajassatakul,Therdsak Prammananan,Angkana Chaiprasert,Saranya Phunpruch |
| ||Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials. 2018; 17(1) |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and transmission associated with first-line drug resistance: a first analysis in Jalisco, Mexico
| ||Gladys Lopez-Avalos,Guadalupe Gonzalez-Palomar,Martín Lopez-Rodriguez,Carlos Arturo Vazquez-Chacon,Gustavo Mora-Aguilera,Juan Antonio Gonzalez-Barrios,Juan Carlos Villanueva-Arias,Manuel Sandoval-Diaz,Ulises Miranda-Hernández,Ikuri Alvarez-Maya |
| ||Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance. 2017; 11: 90 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|