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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 307-310

Etiology and outcome of moderate-to-massive hemoptysis: Experience from a tertiary care center of North India


Department of Internal Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Ashish Bhalla
Department of Internal Medicine, 4th Floor, F Block, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh - 160 012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_54_17

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Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiology of hemoptysis in patients presenting to emergency department of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India. Method: Prospectively 110 patients presenting to the emergency department with history of hemoptysis were screened for a period of one and half years. Out of these, 64 patients having true hemoptysis were enrolled in the study. The patients were clinically evaluated with detailed history. Radiological evaluation included chest x rays and computerized tomogram. Sputum examination and bronchoscopy was done to establish the etiology. All the patients were conservatively managed using intravenous fluids, antibiotics, anti-tussive and anti-fibrinolytic drugs. Bronchial/pulmonary artery embolization was performed for controlling ongoing bleeding/re-bleeding. All the patients were followed up till discharge or death. Results: The mean age was 41.8 ± 15.16 years with male preponderance. Pulmonary tuberculosis (active/ sequel) was the most common etiology (65%), followed by community acquired pneumonia (10.93%), bronchiectasis (9.3%), carcinoma lung (7.18%) and miscellaneous causes (8.6%). Almost all patients (98%) had severe hemoptysis (>100 ml in 24 hours). Abnormalities in bronchial circulation were present in 59.4% and 14% of patients had pulmonary circulation abnormalities. 65% patients responded to conservative treatment. 23.4% patients under went intervention out of which 73.3% underwent bronchial artery embolization (BAE) and remaining 26.6% underwent pulmonary artery embolization (PAE). One patient died during hospital stay due to necrotizing pneumonia and another left hospital against medical advice (outcome unknown). Conclusions: TB (active/sequel) remains the most common cause of hemoptysis in patients admitted in emergency department. Non-TB causes like primary bronchiectasis, carcinoma lung and pneumonia are other important causes. Conservative management suffices in majority patients for controlling active bleed.


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