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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 375-379

Infection of multiple Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains among tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients: A molecular study in Myanmar

1 Department of Regional Public Health, Nay Pyi Taw Union Territory, Ministry of Health and Sports, Myanmar; Department of Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand
2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
3 Department of Research and Development Affairs, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
4 Department of Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand

Correspondence Address:
Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong
Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_108_18

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Background: Appearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in the sputum of a tuberculosis (TB)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patient under treatment may indicate either failure or new infection. This study aims to evaluate whether TB treatment failure among TB/HIV co-infected patients is a real failure. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 566 TB/HIV co-infected patients who started TB treatment in 12 townships in the upper Myanmar. Among the 566 participants, 16 (2.8%) resulted in treatment failure. We performed a molecular study using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable number of tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping for them. The MIRU-VNTR profiles were analyzed using the web server, MIRU-VNTRplus. All data were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using R version 3.4.3. Results: Among 16 failure patients, seven had incomplete laboratory results. Of the nine remaining patients, nobody had exactly the same MIRU-VNTR pattern between the initial and final isolates. Four patients had persistent East-African Indian (EAI) lineages and one each had persistent Beijing lineage, changing from EAI to Beijing, from Beijing to EAI, NEW-1 to Beijing, and NEW-1 to X strains. Female patients have significantly larger genetic difference between MTB of the paired isolates than male patients (t-test, P = 0.04). Conclusion: Thus, in our study patients, infection of multiple MTB strains is a possible cause of TB treatment failure. Explanation for the association between gender and distance of genotypes from the initial to subsequent MTB infection needs further studies.

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