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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 39-47

Epidemiological profile and surveillance activity of tuberculosis in South Batinah, Oman, 2017 and 2018


1 Directorate General for Health Services in South Batinah Governorate, MOH, Al-Rustaq, Oman
2 Rustaq Regional Hospital, Al-Rustaq, Oman
3 Rustaq Extended Health Center, Al-Rustaq, Oman
4 Barka Extended Health Center, Al-Rustaq, Oman
5 Musanaah Extended Health Center, Al-Rustaq, Oman
6 College of Arts and Social Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman
7 General Directorate for Disease Surveillance and Control, MOH, Muscat, Oman

Correspondence Address:
Zayid K Al Mayahi
P.O. Box: 543, PC 329, Rustaq, South Batinah
Oman
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_188_19

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Background: Understanding the current surveillance activity and the challenges is important to ensure a continuous success toward the elimination goal for tuberculosis (TB). South Batinah Governorate (SBG) ranked the fourth on the top reporting governorates in the period 2010–2016 in Oman. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiological profile and activities of the surveillance program of TB in the SBG in the years 2017 and 2018. Methods: A retrospective quantitative analysis and a qualitative review were performed to the surveillance data present in the department of disease surveillance and control in the SBG in the years 2017 and 2018. Results: A total of 39 pulmonary TB (PTB) and 21 extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) cases were diagnosed in 2017 and 2018. More Omanis (22, 56.4%) were diagnosed with PTB compared to non-Omanis; however, the EPTB was solely diagnosed among Omanis (P < 0.001). Majority of the TB patients (35%) were between 30 and 49 years. More than 50% of the TB cases of both the types were diagnosed in <3 months, and the median of diagnosis delay was 33.5 (standard deviation = 95.5). Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccine scar was present in only 20.5% of the PTB patients, compared to 57.1% of EPTB (P = 0.004). Patients with PTB presented mainly with cough (31, 79.5%), loss of weight and appetite (25, 64.1%), and fever (22, 56.4%). Enlarged lymph nodes and loss of weight and appetite were the common symptoms among EPTB patients, 38.1 for each (P < 0.001). Staffing, incomplete notifications, difficulty in tracing the results, and absence of regular feedbacks are the major existing challenges. Conclusion: SBG continues to sustain low incidence rate of tuberculosis; however, additional strategies are urgently required for further reduction. Hence, the priority is to enhance all essential components of the surveillance system at this stage.


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