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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 200-204

Tuberculin reactivity in schoolchildren, Kassala State, Sudan


1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Kassala, Kassala, Sudan
2 Department of Microbiology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Ibn Sina University, Khartoum, Sudan
3 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Kassala, Kassala, Sudan
4 Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, Bioscience Research Institute, Ibn Sina University, Khartoum, Sudan

Correspondence Address:
Fatima Abbas Khalid
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Kassala, Kassala
Sudan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_16_20

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Background: Tuberculin skin test (TST) is widely used for the assessment of Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine efficacy and screening of latent TB infection (LTBI). Poor or no data are available on the reactivity of tuberculin in Kassala State. The aim of the present study was to assess the response to the BCG vaccine and to estimate the prevalence of LTBI and the annual rate annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI) among vaccinated school children using TST. Methods: School-based cross-sectional study was conducted in three localities of Kassala State during 2016–2018. A cluster random sampling method was used for the enrolment. Five tuberculin units of 0.1 mL were injected intradermally in the left forearm of 2568 school children aged 5–15 years. The test was performed after the assessment of child health, nutrition status, and BCG scar status. Tuberculin reaction size was interpreted after 48–72 h. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (v 20). The classical method was used to estimate ARTI. Results: Overall, there was no reaction in 81.5% of children. Only 0.66% of children had induration 10 mm–28 mm, indicating the prevalence of latent TB with an annual risk of 0.1%. Tuberculin reactivity was statistically significant affected by child age, gender, geographical location, and nutrition status (P < 0.05), whereas BCG scar status had no effect (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The study documented a high proportion of tuberculin nonreactivity irrespective of BCG vaccination status and provides data on the prevalence of latent infection among studied groups. Further studies are needed to address the reasons of low and nonreactivity of tuberculin, and evaluation of the BCG vaccine is recommended.


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