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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-March 2020
Volume 9 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-106

Online since Friday, March 6, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Prevalence of paratuberculosis in dairy cattle in ecuador Highly accessed article p. 1
Gustavo Echeverr, Henry Escobar, Darwin Changoluisa, Lenin Ron, Andrea Proaño, Freddy Proaño-Pérez, Martin J Zumárraga, Jacobus H de Waard
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_175_19  
Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causal agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic infectious contagious disease of the intestinal tract of ruminants that are also associated with Crohn's disease in humans. The existence of paratuberculosis in Ecuador is virtually unknown; hence, the present study was performed to gain insight into the prevalence of this disease. Methods: Three dairy cattle farms in different geographic regions in Ecuador were investigated for the infection with MAP, and 600 blood samples, 200 of each cattle herd, were processed with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fecal samples of the seropositive cows were processed for culture on modified Löwenstein–Jensen medium. Results: One hundred and fifty bovines (25%) resulted seropositive and we confirmed with culture the presence of MAP in 4.7% (7/150) of the seropositive cows. Approximately 20% of the fecal samples of seropositive cows yielded nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species including M. avium subsp. avium, a NTM species closely related to MAP. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of paratuberculosis in this first study for Ecuador is high (25%). We discuss a possible interference of NTM species, isolated from fecal samples, with the diagnosis of paratuberculosis. With this report, a baseline study, we confirm for the first time the presence of paratuberculosis in Ecuador, and we provide the necessary information for future studies and control of this disease.
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Risk factors for hypercalcemia in patients with tuberculosis p. 7
Sujith Mathew John, Sheeba Sagar, Joshi Krishnakumari Aparna, Sharon Joy, Ajay Kumar Mishra
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_211_19  
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is prevalent worldwide and causes significant morbidity and mortality. TB is known to cause hypercalcemia. We aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors for developing hypercalcemia among patients with TB. Methods: In this retrospective case–control study, patients with microbiological evidence of TB and an available serum calcium value were included between 2005 and 2016. The demographic, clinical, and laboratory details were recorded. Various risk factors were compared in TB patients with and without hypercalcemia. Results: A total of 129 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Twenty percent were found to have an elevated serum calcium level, 65% of them had clinical features of hypercalcemia. In comparison, the odds of developing hypercalcemia in the presence of disseminated TB, diabetes and renal failure was 1.83, 1.60, and 7.33, respectively. Conclusion: One-fifth of patients with TB have hypercalcemia. Risk factors of the same are renal failure, diabetes, and disseminated TB.
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Structural modification of a novel inhibitor for mycobacterium enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase assisted by In silico structure-based drug screening p. 12
Junichi Taira, Toshiki Nagano, Mitsuru Kitamura, Miho Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Sakamoto, Shunsuke Aoki
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_184_19  
Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (mtInhA) is involved in the biosynthesis of mycolic acids, a major component of mycobacterial cell walls, and has been targeted in the development of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs. In our previous in silico structure-based drug screening study, we identified KES4, a novel class of mtInhA inhibitor. KES4 is composed of four ring structures (A–D-rings) and molecular dynamic simulation predicted that the D-ring is essential for the interaction with mtInhA. Methods: The structure–activity relationship study of the D-ring was attempted and aided by in silico docking simulations to improve the mtInhA inhibitory activity of KES4. A virtual chemical library of the D-ring-modified KES4 was then constructed and subjected to in silico docking simulation against mtInhA using the GOLD program. The candidate compound showing the highest GOLD score, referred to as KEN1, was synthesized, and its biological properties were compared with those of the lead compound KES4. Results: We achieved the synthesis of KEN1 and evaluated its effects on InhA activity, mycobacterial growth, and cytotoxicity. The antimycobacterial activity of KEN1 was comparable to that of the lead compound (KES4), although it exhibited superior activity in mtInhA inhibition. \Conclusions: We obtained a KES4 derivative with high mtInhA inhibitory activity by in silico docking simulation with a chemical library consisting of a series of D-ring-modified KES4.
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Dominant marker (inter-simple sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction) versus codominant marker (RLEP-polymerase chain reaction) for laboratory diagnosis of leprosy: A comparative evaluation p. 18
Partha Sarathi Mohanty, Avi Kumar Bansal, Farah Naaz, Shripad A Patil, Mamta Arora, Manjula Singh
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_190_19  
Background: Leprosy is a contagious disease and was eliminated globally in 2002. Since then, new cases were continuously detected from different parts of the world. Untreated leprosy cases shed millions of bacteria and are the main cause of dissemination of the disease. Currently, leprosy is detected by acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy and has a low sensitivity ranging from 10% to 50%. The correlation between clinical findings and microscopy is unable to provide a conclusive case detection. Thus, in the present study, we compared to molecular methods, namely RLEP-polymerase chain reaction (RLEP-PCR) and inter-simple sequence repeat-PCR (ISSR-PCR) taking AFB microscopy as a gold standard for the detection of leprosy. Methods: A total of 168 clinically diagnosed leprosy patients were recruited in this study including 58 multibacillary and 110 paucibacillary patients. Slit-skin smear samples were taken for both microscopy and molecular study. Primers for RLEP-PCR were taken from the previous reports. The primers for ISSR-PCR were designed by screening the whole genome of Mycobacterium leprae TN strain (GenBank accession AL450380) for the presence of simple sequence repeats. One primer (TA)8CA3was synthesized and used for molecular amplification of ISSR-PCR. Results: We found that the efficacy of the AFB microscopy was 24.40%, whereas the efficacy of RLEP-PCR and ISSR-PCR was 63.09% and 73.21% (P = 0.000, 0.000, and 0.469), respectively. The area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic curve for the comparison of three diagnostic methods was 0.845. An enhancement of 48.81% in the case detection rate by ISSR-PCR over AFB microscopy and 10.12% over RLEP-PCR was also found. Our study clearly reveals that ISSR-PCR is a better tool for diagnosis of leprosy than AFB microscopy and RLEP-PCR. Interestingly, both the PCR techniques RLEP-PCR and ISSR-PCR are able to detect samples which were negative for AFB microscopy. Conclusion: Thus, the demonstration of ISSR-PCR in SSS samples can provide a better sensitive and confirmative tool for early diagnosis of leprosy.
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The activity-based cost of drug-susceptibility test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis through Kit SIRE Nitratase® Plastlabor p. 24
Isabela Neves de Almeida, Suely Conceição da Silva, Haliton Alves de Oliveira Junior, Lida Jouca de Assis Figueredo, Valéria Martins Soares, Wânia da Silva Carvalho, Afrânio Kritski, Maria Cláudia da Silva Vater da Costa Fiori, Silvana Spíndola de Miranda
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_8_20  
Background: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is an ongoing health threat, and the greatest challenge to adequate control of TB in many countries lies in the lack of proper laboratory drug-susceptibility test. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity-based costs (ABC) of Kit SIRE Nitratase® (Kit SIRE) and compare its values with the conventional drug-susceptibility test. Methods: The ABC was calculated for three different approaches: Kit SIRE (clinical samples and cultures), proportion methods in Lowenstein Jensen (PM-LJ), and the Bactec™ MGIT™ 960 system based on Mycobacterial Research Laboratory's routine. Results: The ABC of Kit SIRE from cultures was US$ 148.54, while from clinical samples was US$ 136.12. In the case of conventional tests, the ABC of Bactec™ MGIT™ 960 was US$ 227.63 and of the PM-LJ was US$ 132.64. The Kit SIRE has a lower ABC when clinical samples are used instead of cultures. Compared to conventional tests, the ABC is similar to the PM-LJ and lower the Bactec™ MGIT™ 960. Conclusion: The Kit SIRE should be used as a screening method in clinical specimens and in culture for laboratories that do not have Bactec™ MGIT™ 960. Therefore, it can be incorporated into the routine of laboratories in countries with low resources and a high burden of TB and drug-resistant TB.
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Performance of Mali's biosafety level 3 laboratory in the external quality assessment in preparedness of laboratory accreditation and support to clinical trials p. 29
N Coulibaly, B Kone, M Sanogo, AC G Togo, B Diarra, YS Sarro, AB Cisse, O Kodio, G Coulibaly, M Kone, B Baya, M Maiga, D Dabitao, M Belson, S Dao, S Diallo, M Diakite, AH Babana, S Doumbia
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_5_20  
Background: The external quality assessment (EQA) or external quality control is an evaluation conducted by a certified external organization to inquire about the quality of the results provided by a laboratory. The primary role of EQA is to verify the accuracy of laboratory results. This is essential in research because research data should be published in international peer-reviewed journals, and laboratory results must be repeatable. In 2007, the University Clinical Research Center (UCRC's) biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratory joined the EQA program with the College of American Pathologists in acid-fast staining and culture and identification of mycobacteria as per laboratory accreditation preparedness. Thus, after 11 years of participation, the goal of our study was to evaluate the performance of our laboratory during the different interlaboratory surveys. Methods: We conducted a descriptive retrospective study to evaluate the results of UCRC mycobacteriology laboratory from surveys conducted during 2007 and 2017. Results: Of the 22 evaluations, the laboratory had satisfactory (100% of concordance results) in 18 (81.8%) and good (80% of concordance results) in 4 (18.2%). Overall, the laboratory was above the commended/accepted limits of 75%. Conclusion: So far, UCRC's BSL-3 performed well during the first 11 years of survey participation, and efforts should be deployed to maintain this high quality in the preparedness for laboratory accreditation and support to clinical trials.
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Evaluation of the intracellular accumulation of fluoroquinolones in mycobacteria by fluorometric assays p. 34
Nirmala Deo, Divakar Sharma, Deepa Bisht, Krishnamurthy Venkatesan
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_194_19  
Background: Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are being used as second-line agents in the treatment of tuberculosis caused by multidrug-resistant strains. Ofloxacin (OFX) is being tried as a part of modified multidrug therapy regimens for leprosy. A preliminary study was carried out to evaluate the accumulation of FQs – OFX, levofloxacin (LFX), norfloxacin (NFX), and ciprofloxacin (CIF) in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Methods: M. smegmatis were grown in Sauton's medium till log phase, harvested and resuspended in phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.2, Optical Density (OD) of 0.4–0.5) The suspensions were incubated with OFX, LFX, NFX, and CIF (10 μg/ml) at 37°C. The drugs were estimated in the supernatants using spectrofluorimeteric methods. The experiments were also conducted with the addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP), a proton motive force inhibitor, at 100 μM, 10 min before and/or immediately after the addition of the drugs. Results: The time taken to achieve a Steady State Concentration (SSC) of OFX in M. smegmatis was 3 min and the level of accumulation was 102 ng/mg dry weight of the bacilli; with LFX the time for SSC was 5 min and the level of accumulation was 90 ng/mg; in case of NFX the accumulation to SSC was 87 ng/mg in 3 min. CIF accumulation attained a steady state (SSC level of 79 ng/mg) in 4 min. The accumulation kinetics for NFX in M. smegmatis using the spectrofluorimetric method is comparable with radioactive assays. Dose-related accumulation was observed with 10 μg/ml exposure concentrations. The addition of CCCP failed to influence the accumulation of each of these quinolones. Conclusion: The findings of dose-related accumulation of OFX, LFX NFX, and CIF suggest simple diffusion as the possible mechanism of transport of these drugs.
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Epidemiological profile and surveillance activity of tuberculosis in South Batinah, Oman, 2017 and 2018 p. 39
Zayid K Al Mayahi, Ibtisam AlAufi, Badriya Al Ghufaili, Zawan Al Balushi, Zakiya Al Mughazwi, Emad Mohammed, Rahmdil Essa, Haga M Yousif, Adhraa K Al Mayahi, Azza Al Hattali, Fakhriyah Al Ghafri Al Ghafri, Nasser Al Shaqsi, Khalid Salim, Hamid A Elmutashi1, Fatma AI Yaquobi
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_188_19  
Background: Understanding the current surveillance activity and the challenges is important to ensure a continuous success toward the elimination goal for tuberculosis (TB). South Batinah Governorate (SBG) ranked the fourth on the top reporting governorates in the period 2010–2016 in Oman. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiological profile and activities of the surveillance program of TB in the SBG in the years 2017 and 2018. Methods: A retrospective quantitative analysis and a qualitative review were performed to the surveillance data present in the department of disease surveillance and control in the SBG in the years 2017 and 2018. Results: A total of 39 pulmonary TB (PTB) and 21 extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) cases were diagnosed in 2017 and 2018. More Omanis (22, 56.4%) were diagnosed with PTB compared to non-Omanis; however, the EPTB was solely diagnosed among Omanis (P < 0.001). Majority of the TB patients (35%) were between 30 and 49 years. More than 50% of the TB cases of both the types were diagnosed in <3 months, and the median of diagnosis delay was 33.5 (standard deviation = 95.5). Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccine scar was present in only 20.5% of the PTB patients, compared to 57.1% of EPTB (P = 0.004). Patients with PTB presented mainly with cough (31, 79.5%), loss of weight and appetite (25, 64.1%), and fever (22, 56.4%). Enlarged lymph nodes and loss of weight and appetite were the common symptoms among EPTB patients, 38.1 for each (P < 0.001). Staffing, incomplete notifications, difficulty in tracing the results, and absence of regular feedbacks are the major existing challenges. Conclusion: SBG continues to sustain low incidence rate of tuberculosis; however, additional strategies are urgently required for further reduction. Hence, the priority is to enhance all essential components of the surveillance system at this stage.
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Outcomes of pulmonary Mycobacterium abscessus infection p. 48
William G Flight, Natasha E Hough, Stephen J Chapman
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_3_20  
Background: Treatment of Mycobacterium abscessus pulmonary disease (PD) is challenging with frequent side effects and uncertain rates of success. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients at our center with at least one respiratory sample positive for M. abscessus between 2014 and 2019. Electronic health records were reviewed to determine factors associated with M. abscessus infection and clinical outcomes. Results: Thirty-seven patients were identified including 24 with cystic fibrosis (CF), 10 with bronchiectasis, two with chronic obstructive PD (COPD), and one with asthma. American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America criteria for nontuberculous mycobacteria PD were met in 21/37 (56.8%) of cases. Evidence of Aspergillus lung disease was noted in 18 (75.0%) CF patients compared with 3 (23.1%) non-CF patients (P = 0.005). Induction therapy for M. abscessus was given to 22/37 (59.5%) patients (18/24 [75%] with CF and 4/13 [30.8%] without CF). Median duration of induction therapy was 6 weeks (range 3–12). Maintenance antibiotic therapy was prescribed to 17/22 (77.3%) of treated patients. Culture conversion was seen in 15/24 (62.5%) of CF patients compared with 3/13 (23.1%) in the non-CF group (P = 0.034). Culture conversion occurred in 10/22 (45.5%) of treated patients compared with 8/15 (53.3%) untreated patients. Three patients (8.1%) died during follow-up: one with CF and two with COPD. Conclusions: Culture conversion following isolation of M. abscessus from respiratory samples not only is more common in CF than in patients without CF but also frequently occurs spontaneously in both groups. Targeted treatment for M. abscessus did not clearly impact rates of culture conversion.
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Positivity of interferon-gamma release assay among foreign-born individuals, Tokyo, Japan, 2015–2017 p. 53
Satoshi Miyake, Masayuki Endo, Keiko Ikedo, Aya Kayebeta, Ikumi Takahashi, Masaki Ota
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_177_19  
Background: The aim of this study is to analyze interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) data of foreign-born individuals in Japan derived from tuberculosis (TB) contact investigations. Methods: A contact with a TB patient was considered to have occurred when an individual had contact with a TB patient for more than 8 h indoors. This is a retrospective cohort study, and all the TB contacts tested with IGRA during the contact investigations conducted by the Shinjuku city Health Office from 2015 through 2017 were enrolled. Results: A total of 880 foreign-born contacts were investigated. The IGRA positivity of the contacts from China and Viet Nam were both 5.1% (95% confidence intervals [CIs]: 3.2%–7.8% and 2.4%–9.5%, respectively), whereas that from Nepal and Myanmar were 24.4% (95% CI: 16.0%–34.6%) and 23.3% (95% CI: 9.9%–42.3%), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors were smear status of the index patient (1+: adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 6.2, 95% CI: 1.2–30.5, smear status 3+: aOR: 14.3, 95% CI: 1.7–118.2), age of the contact (aOR: 1.1, 95% CI: 1.0–1.1 for 1 year increment), and being born in Nepal (aOR: 5.6, 95% CI: 2.8–11.2) and Myanmar (aOR: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.4–13.0), compared with China as reference. Conclusions: In contact investigations involving foreign-born individuals, local health offices should carefully consider the composition of the TB contacts and expand the focus of the investigation, if deemed necessary.
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Evaluation of Mycobacterium kansasii extracellular vesicles role in BALB/c mice immune modulatory p. 58
Zahra Hoseini Tavassol, Shahrbanoo Keshavarz Aziziraftar, Ava Behrouzi, Morteza Ghazanfari, Morteza Masoumi, Aboulfazl Fateh, Farzam Vaziri, Seyed Davar Siadat
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_212_19  
Background:Mycobacterium kansasii as a nontuberculosis mycobacteria, naturally release extracellular vesicles (EVs) with widespread utilities. The aim of the present study was the extraction and biological evaluation of M. kansasii EV and its role in BALB/c mice immune modulatory by considering EVs medical usage specificities. Method: Density gradient ultracentrifugation method was used to EVs extraction from standard species of M. kansasii. Biologic validation of EVs has been performed by physicochemical experiments. Immunization has been done by subcutaneous injection to BALB/c mice, then spleen cell isolation and lymphocyte transformation test and eventually ELISA cytokine assays were made for interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). IBM SPSS version 22 software (SPSS. Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for the data calculation. The evaluation of variables was conducted using one sample t-test. Results: Physicochemical experiment results contribute that extracted EVs have intransitive capability to use in immunization schedule. Finally, ELISA test results showed that EVs induced IL-10 production, but have no effect on IFN-γ. Conclusions: In this current study, EVs were prepared in high-quality composition. The results of cytokine assay revealed that the extracted EVs have anti-inflammatory property. Accordingly, this macromolecule can be used as immune modulatory agents to prevent severe immune reactions, especially in lungs disorders.
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An overview of pulmonary infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria in South Asia and impressions from a subtropical region p. 62
Kamal Shrivastava, Chanchal Kumar, Anupriya Singh, Anshika Narang, Astha Giri, Naresh Kumar Sharma, Shraddha Gupta, Varsha Chauhan, Jayanthi Gunasekaran, Viswesvaran Balasubramanian, Anil Chaudhry, Rupak Singla, Rajendra Prasad, Mandira Varma-Basil
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_179_19  
Background: Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) comprise nearly half of the validated species of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and have been reported to have a higher incidence in Asia as compared to Europe and America. There is limited information on RGM infections from South Asia. Hence, the present study aimed to ascertain the incidence of pulmonary infections due to RGM in Delhi and to review the status of available information on the prevalence of RGM in South Asia, a region endemic for tuberculosis. Methods: We analyzed 933 mycobacterial isolates obtained from pulmonary samples in Delhi and performed species identification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction analysis (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and line probe assay. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed by broth microdilution method. We also reviewed reports available on pulmonary infections in South Asia, attributed to RGM. Results: Of the 933 mycobacterial isolates studied, NTM were identified in 152 (16.3%). Of these, 65/152 (42.8%) were RGM comprising Mycobacterium fortuitum (34/65; 52.3%), Mycobacterium abscessus (25/65; 38.5%), Mycobacterium chelonae (3/65; 4.61%), Mycobacterium mucogenicum (2/65; 3.1%), and Mycobacterium smegmatis (1/65; 1.5%). On applying the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines, 11/25 (44%) M. abscessus, 3/3 (100%) M. chelonae, and both isolates of M. mucogenicum were found to be clinically relevant. DST revealed that maximum susceptibility of the RGM was seen to linezolid, clarithromycin, and amikacin. Conclusions: Of the RGM isolated in the present study, 16/65 (24.6%) were found to be clinically relevant. Hence, it is important to recognize these organisms as potential pathogens to identify patients with RGM disease to initiate appropriate therapy.
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Targeting bedaquiline mycobacterial efflux pump to potentially enhance therapy in Mycobacterium abscessus p. 71
Anandi Martin, Yasmine Bouyakoub, Kate Soumillion, Eléonore Ngyuvula Mantu, Alexandre Colmant, Hector Rodriguez-Villalobos
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_181_19  
Background: Mycobacterium abscessus is notorious for being intrinsically resistant to most antibiotics. Antibiotic efflux is one of the mechanisms used by M. abscessus to pump out antibiotics from their cells. Inhibiting efflux pumps (EPs) can be an attractive strategy to enhance the activity of drugs. The objective of this study is to determine the activity of EP inhibitors (EPIs) to enhance the efficacy of the new drug bedaquiline against M. abscessus clinical isolates. Methods: A total of 31 phenotypically and genotypically identified M. abscessus subsp. abscessus, M. abscesss subsp. massiliense, and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii clinical isolates were studied. The contribution of EPs was determined by investigating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels of bedaquiline reduction in the absence and presence of EPIs verapamil and reserpine using the resazurin microtiter assay. Results: The observed bedaquiline MIC reduction by verapamil was observed in 100% isolates and by reserpine in 54.8% isolates. Bedaquiline MIC was 4–32-fold using verapamil with M. abscessus subsp. bolletii showing the highest fold change and between 2- and 4-fold using reserpine. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study confirm that bedaquiline MIC decreased in the presence of EPIs verapamil and reserpine in clinical isolates of M. abscessus. Verapamil was the most effective EPI. As shown in previous studies, verapamil may have clinical potential as adjunctive therapy to enhance the effect of bedaquiline.
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Serum immunoglobulin a antibodies to glycopeptidolipid core antigen for Mycobacteroides abscessus complex lung disease p. 76
Takehiko Kobayashi, Kazunari Tsuyuguchi, Shiomi Yoshida, Yu Kurahara, Shojiro Minomo, Yoshikazu Inoue, Katsuhiro Suzuki
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_14_20  
Background: Mycobacteroides abscessus complex (MABC) exhibits smooth morphotypes, expressing glycopeptidolipid (GPL), and rough morphotypes, expressing diminished GPL, on the MABC cell wall. Few reports have focused on the relationship between anti-GPL-core immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody and colony morphology in MABC lung disease. Methods: This study aimed to test GPL core antigen in patients with MABC lung disease to investigate the relationship between coinfection/contamination in other nontuberculous mycobacteria species and colony morphology variant in MABC isolates. Patients with MABC lung disease and contamination diagnosed between 2012 and 2017 at our hospital were enrolled retrospectively. Results: Of the assessed patients, 43 patients with MABC lung disease and 13 with MABC contamination were included. There was a significant difference in anti-GPL-core IgA antibody levels between them (P = 0.02). Forty-three patients with MABC lung disease were divided into two groups as positive and negative antibodies groups. A significant increase in the positive anti-GPL-core IgA antibody was observed in coexistence with both Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (P = 0.02) and the isolate of the smooth variant (P = 0.03) in MABC.Conclusions: Anti-GPL-core IgA antibodies in patients with MABC are greatly influenced by MAC coexistence, and colony morphology variant of the MABC isolate.
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Clinical-epidemiological profile and factors related to the mortality of patients with nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated at a reference hospital in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil p. 83
Matheus Alves De Lima Mota, David Mendes De Melo, Francisca Lillyan Christyan Nunes Beserra, Gerardo Albino Nogueira Filho, Lílian Macambira Pinto, Raabe De Jesus Souza, Sandrirla Da Silva Sousa, Rosa Salani Mota, Roberto Da Justa Pires Neto, Terezinha Do Menino Jesus Silva Leit
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_12_20  
Background: There is a significant shortage of official records that enable estimating the real prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in Brazil. The study aims to investigate the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological aspects of patients with NTM isolation at an infectious diseases reference hospital, and to identify factors associated with mortality. Methods: This was an observational study in which clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory aspects were evaluated in patients with NTM isolated at care in Hospital São José, located in Northeastern Brazil, from 2005 to 2016. The records of the reference laboratory for NTM isolates were searched from the culture results of patients. Afterward, the medical records of the patients were reviewed. The analytical assessment was conducted by the Mann–Whitney and Fisher's exact test. The adopted level of significance was 5%. Results: A total of 69 patients were described, with a predominance of males (73.9%). The main clinical forms identified were: pulmonary (60.9%) and disseminated (27.5%). The most frequently NTM identified were Mycobacterium avium (24.6%) and Mycobacterium fortuitum (10.1%). Forty-eight (69.6%) patients had HIV infection. The mortality was 24.6%, and the risk factors for deaths identified were: origin from outside the metropolitan region; weight loss; HIV infection; anemia; hyperbilirubinemia; increased serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase; and impaired renal function. Among the patients with HIV, the main changes related to death were: lower counts of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Conclusion: Maintaining constant vigilance regarding the possibility of NTM infection is required, namely in patients co-infected with HIV/AIDS.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Disseminated Mycobacterium scrofulaceum Infection in a Patient with Anti-Interferon-γ Autoantibodies: A Case Report and Review of the Literature p. 91
Surachai Chaononghin, Suttichai Visuttichaikit, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Thana Khawcharoenporn
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_182_19  
Mycobacterium scrofulaceum is an environmental mycobacterial species rarely reported to cause disseminated infection in adults. We report the case of a disseminated M. scrofulaceum infection in a 55-year-old nonhuman immunodeficiency virus-infected Thai man with anti-interferon-γ autoantibodies. The clinical signs of the infection improved after the induction regimen with amikacin, rifampicin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin, followed by the consolidation regimen with ethambutol, clarithromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Our review of previous reported cases of this infection indicates its association with immune deficiency, complex treatment, and a high rate of unfavorable outcomes.
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Disseminated pulmonary mucormycosis with concomitant tuberculosis infection in a diabetic patient p. 95
Priyamvadha Ramesh, Gurmeet Kaur, Desh Deepak, Prabhat Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_186_19  
Patients with diabetes are often susceptible to various opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and mucormycosis. However, the occurrence of both these infections simultaneously is rare. We present one such case of pulmonary tuberculosis with disseminated pulmonary mucormycosis in a patient with diabetes, which was successfully managed.
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Metastatic tuberculous chest wall and massive psoas abscesses in an immunocompetent patient p. 98
Mansoor C Abdulla
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_183_19  
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is rare in immunocompetent healthy adults. TB of the chest wall accounts for 1%–5% of all cases of musculoskeletal TB. Psoas abscess can be either primary or secondary to diseases like Pott's spine. We describe a patient with massive lower chest wall abscess extending to abdominal muscles and an asymptomatic large psoas abscess detected on imaging due to spine TB which responded well to antitubercular therapy and drainage without surgical measures. The concomitant presence of a massive chest wall abscess and psoas abscess due to TB in an immunocompetent patient was not reported previously.
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Persistent Laparoscopic Port-site Discharging Sinus: A Rare Case of Mycobacterium senegalense Infection p. 100
Vettakkara Kandy Muhammed Niyas, Vishakh C Keri, Binit Kumar Singh, Prabhat Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_189_19  
Laparoscopic port-site infections, though infrequent, undermine the advantages provided by minimally invasive surgeries. Persistent nonhealing discharging sinuses, not responding to conventional antibiotic therapy, pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Sizeable number of these infections is caused by rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), and diagnosing these requires a high index of suspicion. We present a case of a nonhealing laparoscopic cholecystectomy umbilical port-site infection caused by Mycobacterium senegalense, a rare NTM. The patient recovered completely after 6 months of combination therapy with clarithromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and levofloxacin.
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Are we witnessing a paradigm shift in leprosy: Two atypical presentations of histoid hansen's disease p. 103
Vikas Pathania, Jatinder Singh, Anwita Sinha, Rohit Kothari, Sukriti Baveja, Prerna Shankar
DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_187_19  
Hansen's disease is a chronic infectious granulomatous disease with varied clinical presentation. In the postelimination era, histoid Hansen's disease is an important emerging lepromatous subset known to mimic varied dermatoses, thereby making clinical diagnosis difficult and often delayed. We report two cases of histoid Hansen's disease bereft of clinical cardinal signs of leprosy.
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