Year : 2016 | Volume : 5 | Issue : 5 | Page : 217--218
Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium Avium subsp. Avium isolates from naturally infected domestic pigeons to avian tuberculosis
Kaveh Parvandar1, Mansour Mayahi1, Nader Mosavari2, Reza Aref Pajoohi2,
1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Karaj, Iran
Objective: Avian tuberculosis is one of the most important infections affecting most species of birds. Several mycobacterial species have been identified causing avian tuberculosis, and the organisms confirmed most frequently are Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium genavense. Any species of birds can be infected with M. avium. Generally, domesticated fowl or captive wild birds are affected more frequently than those living in the wild. M. avium can not only infect all species of birds, but can also infect some domesticated mammals to cause disease, usually with localized lesion. In immunocompetent individuals, M. avium complex isolates produce localized soft tissue infections, including chronic pulmonary infections in the elderly and cervical lymphadenitis in children, but rarely any disseminated disease. In patients infected with HIV and AIDS or in other immunocompromised individuals, M. avium complex isolates frequently cause severe systemic infections. The importance of avian tuberculosis and the risk of its zoonotic spread motivated our interest to determine the drug susceptibility testing of M. avium subsp. avium isolates from naturally infected domestic pigeons to avian tuberculosis. Methods: Based on their clinical signs, 80 pigeons suspected with avian tuberculosis were subjected to the study. Out of the 51 identified isolates, 20 M. avium subsp. avium were subjected to the test. Drug susceptibly testing was performed according to the guidelines by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and using proportional method. Results: In the drug susceptibility testing, all isolates were resistant to streptomycin, kanamycin, ethionamide, and thiophene carboxylic acid hydrazide. Additionally, 3, 2, and 1 isolates were susceptible to isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol, respectively. To date, no study has documented the drug susceptibility testing of M. avium isolates from infected birds to avian tuberculosis. Pigeons are extensively kept in urban and rural areas for homing and racing purposes; thus, they can infect people and farm animals exposed to their droppings containing pathogenic M. avium, and the severity of drug resistance of these isolates indicate lethality in immunocompromised individuals and incurable lymphadenitis in immunocompetent individuals. Conclusion: We suggest drug susceptibility testing for more nontuberculous mycobateria, particularly M. avium complex isolated from infected birds and humans, as well as molecular basics of drug sensitivity in order to detect resistance genes of pathogenic M. avium subsp. avium.
Conflicts of interest
Conflicts of interest