|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 7-17
Nontuberculous mycobacteria in Middle East: Current situation and future challenges
Ali Akbar Velayati1, Sanaz Rahideh1, Zahra Derakhshani Nezhad1, Parissa Farnia1, Mehdi Mirsaeidi2
1 Mycobacteriology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
|Date of Web Publication||21-Feb-2017|
Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy, Department of Medicine M/C 719, University of Illinois at Chicago, 840 S. Wood St., Chicago, IL 60612-7323
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a diverse group of bacterial species that are distributed in the environment. Many of these environmental bacteria can cause disease in humans. The identification of NTM in environmental sources is important for both clinical and epidemiological purposes. In this study, the distribution of NTM species from environmental and clinical samples in the Middle East was reviewed. In order to provide an overview of NTM, as well as recent epidemiological trends, all studies addressing NTM in the Middle East from 1984 to 2014 were reviewed.
A total of 96 articles were found, in which 1751 NTM strains were isolated and 1084 of which were obtained from clinical samples, 619 from environmental samples and 48 were cited by case reports.
Mycobacterium fortuitum was the most common rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM) isolated from both clinical (269 out of 447 RGM; 60.1%) and environmental (135 out of 289 RGM; 46.7%) samples. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was the most common slow growing mycobacteria (SGM) isolated from clinical samples (140 out of 637 SGM; 21.9%). An increasing trend in NTM isolation from the Middle East was noted over the last 5 years. This review demonstrates the increasing concern regarding NTM disease in the Middle East, emphasizing the need for regional collaboration and coordination in order to respond appropriately.
Keywords: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), Middle East, Environmental samples, Clinical samples
|How to cite this article:|
Velayati AA, Rahideh S, Nezhad ZD, Farnia P, Mirsaeidi M. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in Middle East: Current situation and future challenges. Int J Mycobacteriol 2015;4:7-17
|How to cite this URL:|
Velayati AA, Rahideh S, Nezhad ZD, Farnia P, Mirsaeidi M. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in Middle East: Current situation and future challenges. Int J Mycobacteriol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 Apr 15];4:7-17. Available from: https://www.ijmyco.org/text.asp?2015/4/1/7/200593
| Introduction|| |
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been recognized as a diverse group of organisms that are ubiquitous in environmental sources . In most regions of the world, NTM are not reportable public health diseases, so epidemiological data are not easily available . However, data in published studies note increasing trends in the rate of NTM isolation from different geographic regions in the world. Increasing NTM isolation may have important public health implications . Exposure to these organisms can cause serious infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals . According to the latest report released by WHO, about 35.3 million people in the world are living with HIV/AIDS, which represents one of the most vulnerable populations to NTM infection, as well as a higher risk for complications and poor disease outcomes . Those receiving immunosuppressive therapy secondary to organ transplantation, cancer, autoimmune disease and those with diabetes mellitus may also be more susceptible to NTM as compared with the general population, as well as suffer more severe diseases. The incidence of NTM infections is growing all over the world. Although countries in the Middle East have increasingly reported NTM diseases , no comprehensive study of NTM distribution has been conducted in this region. The purpose of this review is to piece together clinical and environmental NTM data reported in peer-reviewed published literature in Middle Eastern countries over the last 30 years.
| Methods|| |
Literature search strategy
This study was conducted by reviewing published literature from the Middle East using PubMed and Scopus for NTM during the study period 1984–2014 using search terms “atypical mycobacteria” [MeSH] AND “Middle East” [MeSH] OR “nontuberculous mycobacteria” [MeSH] AND “Middle East” [MeSH] OR “environmental mycobacteria” [MeSH] AND “Middle East” [MeSH].
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Original articles that presented cross-sectional or cohort studies and reported the incidence of NTM in the Middle East were considered. Congress abstracts and studies using non-standard methods were excluded.
Data extraction and definitions
For all studies, the following data were extracted: year of publication, study setting, studies enroll time, and number of patients investigated. Inconsistencies between the reviewers were discussed to obtain consensus.
The present study search strategy aimed to identify all available published studies that reported data on the incidence of NTM in the Middle East. A total of 379 articles were identified.
Although 298 irrelevant subjects were excluded, after full text evaluation, 96 papers (original and case report articles) describing the incidence of NTM in the Middle East countries were selected for analysis.
Countries included in the study
Countries were divided in two groups: Middle East countries and Eastern neighbors of Iran (Afghanistan, Pakistan). Data were provided from 11 countries, including Iran (34 articles) ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Turkey (21 articles) ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Saudi Arabia (18 articles) ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Lebanon (5 articles) ,,,, Qatar (4 articles) ,,, Pakistan (4 articles) ,,, Iraq (3 articles) ,, Egypt (2 articles) ,, Bahrain (2 articles) ,, Kuwait (2 article) ,, and Oman (1 article) . No NTM data was reported in the remaining Middle Eastern countries, including Jordan, the United Arab Emirates, Syria, Yemen and Afghanistan.
| Results|| |
Out of the 96 articles identified in the search, 48 were original articles and the remaining were case reports. From 48 original articles, 20 studies were conducted in Iran and 13 in Turkey. The remaining reports were obtained from Pakistan (3), Lebanon (3), Saudi Arabia (3), Iraq (3), Egypt (1), Kuwait (1) and Oman (1).
In total, 1751 NTM strains were isolated from the original studies and case reports during the study period. Among the 1751 NTM isolates, 1084 were obtained from clinical samples, 619 from environmental samples and 48 were cited by case reports. The majority of NTM strains were isolated from respiratory specimens, followed by skin lesions, urogenital and cerebrospinal fluid. According to included studies, identification of NTM by conventional techniques were the most frequently used methods.
NTM in clinical samples
Out of the 1084 isolated strains from the clinical original studies, 434 (40.0%) were reported from Iran, 280 (25.8%) from Turkey, 137 (12.6%) from Saudi Arabia, 116 (10.7%) from Pakistan, 47 (4.3%) from Egypt, 43 (3.9%) from Lebanon, 14 (1.2%) from Kuwait and 13 (1.1%) from Oman ([Table 1]). Among the 1084 NTM isolates from clinical samples, 637 (58.7%) were categorized as slow growing Mycobacterium (SGM) and 447 (41.2%) were rapidly growing Mycobacterium (RGM). The most common SGM in clinical samples was Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (140 out of 637; 21.9%). The SGM were found in 245 (56.4%) out of 434 NTM isolates of clinical samples from Iran, 177 (63.2%) out of 280 NTM isolates from Turkey, 47 (34.3%) out of 137 NTM isolates from Saudi Arabia and 69 (59.4%) out of 116 NTM isolates from Pakistan.
|Table 1: Species distribution of clinical NTM isolated in articles reported from the Middle East.|
Click here to view
The most common RGM isolated from clinical samples was Mycobacterium fortuitum (269 out of 447 RGM; 60.1%). M. fortuitum was found in 136 (71.9%) out of 189 RGM isolates from Iran, 49 (54.4%) out of 90 from Saudi Arabia, 48 (46.6%) out of 103 from Turkey, and 23 (48.9%) out of 47 from Pakistan. The species of the most common NTM isolates, the source of isolation and the country of origin are shown in [Table 2].
|Table 2: The most frequently clinical NTM species in articles of the Middle East.|
Click here to view
NTM in environmental samples
A total of 619 environmental NTM isolates were reported from studies from the Middle East in the last 30 years. Of these isolates, 330 (53.3%) NTM species were SGM and 289 (46.6%) were RGM. Out of 619, 271 (43.7%) isolates were reported from Iran, 271 (43.7%) from Iraq, 62 (10.0%) from Turkey and 15 (2.4%) from Saudi Arabia ([Table 3]).
|Table 3: Species distribution of environmental NTM in articles reported from the Middle East.|
Click here to view
The most common SGM by country was as follows: Mycobacterium flavescens in Iran (44 out of 271 SGM; 16.2%), Mycobacterium lentiflavum in Turkey (20 out of 62 SGM; 32.2%) and MAC in Iraq (40 out of 271 SGM; 14.7%) ([Table 3]).
A total of 289 NTM isolates were considered belonging to RGM. The most common RGM isolated from environmental samples was M. fortuitum (135; 46.7%), followed by Mycobacterium chelonae (91; 31.4%) and Mycobacterium abscessus (39; 13.4%).
As shown in [Table 4], the most common NTM isolated from soil and water samples was M. fortuitum. [Table 5] shows the frequency of the most RGM and SGM in different countries. There was no information available regarding environmental NTM from Israel, Pakistan, Egypt and Lebanon.
A total of 48 case reports of NTM were published from Middle Eastern countries, including 15 (31.2%) from Saudi Arabia, 14 (29.1%) from Iran, 8 (16.6%) from Turkey, 4 (8.3%) from Qatar, and the remaining from Lebanon, Bahrain, Pakistan, Kuwait and Egypt ([Table 6]). The case reports were published during the study period beginning in the year 2000 through 2014. The isolated NTM species and infected organs in the case report articles are shown in [Table 6].
Trends of NTM isolates
Together, 1751 NTM isolates were reported in the Middle East, including 1084 isolates from clinical samples, 619 from environmental samples and 48 from the case reports. The highest number of NTM was isolated from Iran and Turkey. The distribution of published clinical and environmental data is shown in [Figure 1]. Also, according to this study, there was an increasing trend in the number of NTM from clinical samples. Before 2000, less than 100 NTM isolates were reported from the Middle East countries. In the following years, the total number of NTM isolates increased rapidly in this region, showing a rise in the number of NTM reports.
|Figure 1: Distribution of published clinical and environmental data from the Middle East countries.|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
NTM infections are an increasing public health problem in many countries in the world. These environmental bacteria are capable of causing serious illnesses in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals . The relatively few studies addressing this growing public health problem in the Middle Eastern countries is also a concern. Lack of awareness among physicians and microbiologists, limited laboratory facilities and the already overwhelmed health systems from other endemic diseases are possible explanations for the lack of NTM data in the Middle East. The absence of information regarding the distribution of NTM poses significant challenges for infection control strategies . Therefore, understanding the trends and true prevalence of NTM is one of the major priorities to optimize infection control programs and resources.
This study is the first review from the Middle Eastern countries describing the identification of NTM species from clinical and environmental samples. The increasing trends of NTM prevalence are notable in this study, which has important public health, healthcare system and policy implications in the region. For example, the similar clinical presentation of NTM to the well-established tuberculosis (TB) presents unique challenges in diagnosis and management. NTM can be easily misdiagnosed as TB and multidrug-resistant TB, resulting in inappropriate management. Misdiagnosis and delay in diagnosis of NTM can lead to serious morbidity and mortality ,.
Different methods were used for the identification of NTM in many countries. Most laboratories use conventional methods. In more recent reports, improved molecular methods resulted in the ability to identify more NTM species . National laboratories still need to standardize NTM protocols for diagnostic methods and management in most Middle Eastern countries.
Among the 1,084 NTM isolates from clinical samples in the Middle East, 58.7% were SGM and 41.2% were RGM. MAC and M. fortuitum were the most SGM and RGM, respectively. M. fortuitum is widely distributed in soil and water ,. This organism was first identified by Da Costa Cruz isolated from a skin abscess in 1938 . The clinical presentation of M. fortuitum includes various clinical manifestations, including most commonly skin and soft-tissue infections . The clinical diagnosis of RGM is difficult due to the absence of biochemical features . The prevalence of M. fortuitum in European countries has been reported previously in Belgium (2.1%), the Czech Republic (17.5%), Denmark (5.3%), Finland (6.7%), France (6.5%), Germany (12.2%), Italy (2.5%), Portugal (16.5%), Spain (10.8%), Switzerland (17.5%), Turkey (33.9%), and the United Kingdom (6.0%) ,. M. fortuitum was the most common RGM found in Iran and Turkey . According to this analysis, M. fortuitum was the most common species among the clinical isolates in the Middle East countries, including Iran.
SGM contain highly pathogenic species. MAC is a pathogen that may cause pulmonary disease, particularly in elderly women . Disseminated MAC disease may occur in immunocompromised patients, particularly HIV-infected persons. It is estimated that more than 500,000 people living in the Middle East are infected with HIV . Therefore, it could be speculated that MAC infection could increase in the Middle East in the near future. Studies suggest that the prevalence of MAC has increased in the United States, Europe and South Korea . Mycobacterium simiae is another SGM that lives in the environment; tap water is thought to be the main source of this Mycobacterium . M. simiae has been identified in various countries, such as France, Germany and Thailand, but most isolates have come from the Southern United States, Cuba and Israel ,,.
Based on this review, M. simiae was the second most prevalent SGM in clinical samples ([Table 1]). The majority of M. simiae strains were reported from Iran. Baghaei et al. recently reviewed 26 Persian patients with pulmonary M. simiae infection from a national referral TB hospital.
The third most common SGM in clinical isolates in the Middle East was Mycobacterium kansasii. Clinical and antigenic characteristics of M. kansasii make it the most similar bacteria to MTB. The geographic areas with the highest reported cases of M. kansasii are the central and southern states of the United States, England, Wales and mining areas from Continental Europe, mainly in the Czech Republic . In Spain, the most frequent NTM pulmonary disease is caused by M. kansasii. .
Mycobacterium gordonae was isolated from 9.4% of clinical samples ([Table 1]). The isolation of M. gordonae from environmental samples suggests that it may cause colonization and contamination of clinical samples ,. True infections with M. gordonae rarely occurs.
Mycobacterium xenopi belongs to a group of SGM that is widely distributed in various regions of Europe and Canada, but it is an uncommon pathogen of pulmonary disease in Asia ,,,. Identification of M. xenopi has increased globally during a 20-year period . In the present study, M. xenopi was the most frequently isolated SGM from clinical samples from Pakistan.
The present review indicates that the NTM incidence is rising in most geographical areas in the Middle East. The increasing number of NTM infections in Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Iran may be caused by the increasing awareness of NTM and improvements in diagnosis methods . It is also possible that people in these countries are more susceptible to NTM infection.
Regarding environmental NTM, this review revealed that M. fortuitum (21.8%), M. chelonae (14.7%) and MAC (7.9%) were the most common species. The rapidly growing organisms, such as M. chelonae and M. fortuitum, are common in the environment and in hospital settings ,,. RGM are extremely resistant to antibiotics, antiseptics and disinfectants and, consequently, are significant nosocomial pathogens. Surgical procedures, accidental trauma or injections are also considered as risk factors for infections involving these organisms .
Similar to clinical samples, M. fortuitum was the most common species among RGM species obtained from environmental samples ([Table 3]). This finding strengthens the hypothesis that M. fortuitum is transmitted from nature to humans. Consequently, the probability of NTM transmission from person to person should be questioned. Among SGM isolates, MAC was the most common and M. flavescens placed second in environmental samples.
| Conclusion|| |
The number of NTM isolates has significantly increased in the Middle East. There is an increasing concern about NTM disease in the Middle East, and regional collaboration and coordination is needed to respond to it appropriately.
| Conflict of interests|| |
The authors have no conflicts of interests to declare related to this manuscript.
| Acknowledgements|| |
This study was supported by the Mycobacteriology Research Center of Masih Daneshvari Hospital. The authors would like to send their appreciation to Dr. Marybeth Allen for her great editorial comments. Mehdi Mirsaeidi MD is supported by NIH grant 5 T32 HL 82547-7. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
| References|| |
J.O. Falkinham, Nontuberculous mycobacteria in the environment, Clin. Chest Med. 23 (3) (2002) 529–551.
P.M. Cassidy, K. Hedberg, A. Saulson, E. McNelly, K.L. Winthrop, Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease prevalence and risk factors: a changing epidemiology, Clin. Infect. Dis. 49 (12) (2009) 124–129.
M.J. Miguez-Burbano, M. Flores, D. Ashkin, A. Rodriguez, A.M. Granada, N. Quintero, Non-tuberculous mycobacteria disease as a cause of hospitalization in HIV-infected subjects, Int. J. Infect. dis. 10 (1) (2006) 47–55.
V.M. Katoch, Infections due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), Indian J. Med. Res. 120 (4) (2004) 290–304.
WHO, 2014, www.WHO.int/gov/HIV/en/, Global Health Observatory (GHO).
S. Simons, J. van Ingen, P.R. Hsueh, N.V. Hung, P.N.R.Dekhuijzen, et al, Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Respiratory Tract Infections, Eastern Asia, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 17 (3) (2011) 343–349.
F. Fallah, A. Karimi, G. Eslami, H. Goudarzi, M. Sharifian, F. Jadali, et al, Isolation of Mycobacterium
and other microorganisms from skin infections in children during Bam earthquake, Iranian J. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2 (4) (2007) 185– 188.
E. Ghaemi, K. Ghazisaidi, H. Koohsari, B. Khodabakhshi, A. Mansoorian, Environmental mycobacteria in areas of high and low tuberculosis prevalence in the Islamic Republic of Iran, East. Mediterr. Health J. 12 (3/4) (2006) 280–285.
A. Hashemi-Shahraki, D. Darban-Sarokhalil, P. Heidarieh, M.M. Feizabadi, S.H. Deshmir-Salameh, et al, Mycobacterium
simiae: a Possible Emerging Pathogen in Iran, Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 66 (6) (2013) 475–479.
F. Heidari, P. Farnia, J. Noroozi, A. Majd, E. Tajedin, et al, The Rapid identification of atypical Mycobacterium
in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients: evaluation of QUB3232 Locus using the VNTR Method (Text in Persian), J. Zanjan. Univ. Med. Sci. 17 (67) (2009) 33–44.
A.D. Khosravi, S. Seghatoleslami, M. Hashemzadeh, Application of PCR-Based fingerprinting for detection of nontuberculous mycobacteria among patients referred to tuberculosis reference center of Khuzestan Province, Iran, Res. J. Microbiol. 4 (4) (2009) 143.
S.H. Moghim, B. Nasr-Esfahani, N. Hosseini, E. Sarikhani, J. Faghri, T. Narimani, et al, Identification of non tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from Isfahan different water sources using phenotypic characterization tests (text in Persian), J. Water Wastewater 25 (86) (2012) 88–95.
N. Naderi, E. Alavi-Naini, B. Sharifi-Mood, M. Naserfar, Prevalence of tuberculosis and non tuberculosis Mycobacterium
in Zahedan, Southeast of Iran, Res. J. Microbiol. 1 (4) (2006) 375–377.
B. Nasr-Esfahani, E. Sarikhani, S. Moghim, J. Faghri, H. Fazeli, et al, Molecular characterization of environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria using PCR- RFLP analysis of 441 Bp heat shock protein 65 fragments, Iran. J. Public Health 41 (4) (2012) 108–114.
T. Radaei, B. Nasr-Esfahani, H. Gasemian-Safaei, S.H. Moghim, H. Fazeli, J. Faghri, et al, Ethambutol-susceptibility of clinical and environmental atypical mycobacteria isolated from Isfahan, Iran (text in Persian), J. Isfahan Med. School 31 (234) (2013) 1–7.
M. Rahbar, A. Lamei, H. Babazadeh, S.H. Afshar Yavari, Isolation of rapid growing mycobacteria from soil and water in Iran, Afr. J. Biotechnol. 9 (24) (2010) 3618–3621.
S. Rahideh, P. Farnia, M. Darbouy, Isolation and identification of rapidly growing mycobacteria from water and soil by PCR-RFLP method in Robat Karim (text in Persian), J. Health 4 (4) (2013) 321–329.
M. Saifi, E.A. Jabbarzadeh, R. Bahrmand, A. Karimi, S. Pourazar, A. Fateh, et al, HSP65-PRA identification of nontuberculosis mycobacteria from 4892 samples suspicious for mycobacterial infections, Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 19 (8) (2013) 723–728.
M. Shafipour, M. Ghane, S. Rahimi Alang, S. Livani, F. Shakeri, E.A. Ghaemi, Non tuberculosis mycobacteria isolated from tuberculosis patients in Golestan province, North of Iran, Ann. Biol. Res. 4 (12) (2013) 133–137.
P. Heidarieh, H. Shojaei, M.M. Feizabadi, A. Havei, A. Hashemi, et al, Molecular identification and conventional susceptibility testing of Iranian clinical Mycobacterium fortuitum
isolates, Iran. J. Basic Med. Sci. 13 (1) (2010) 210–215.
H. Shojaei, A. Hashemi, P. Heidarieh, A. Daei-Naser, Chronic pelvic pain due to Mycobacterium
parascrofulaceum in an Iranian patient: first report of isolation and molecular characterization from Asia, Braz. J. Infect. Dis. 15 (2) (2011) 186–187.
S. Zaker Bostanabad, P. Heidarieh, N. Sheikhi, M. Ghalami, S.H. Pour Azar, et al, Identification of clinical isolates of mycobacteria recovered from Iranian patients by phenotypic and molecular methods (text in Persian), New Cellular Mol. Biotechnol. J. 2 (7) (2012) 49–56.
M. Karami Mirabadi, R. Dibaj, A. Hashemi-Shahraki, A. Daei Naser, M.H. Shah Hosseini, H. Shojaei, Isolation and identification of non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium
(atypic) from water in Isfahan (text in Persian), J. Microb. Biotechnol. 3 (11) (2012) 29–34.
M. Roayayi, K. Ghazisaidi, M. Jamshidian, M.J. Kajbaf, The abundance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in tuberculosis suspected patients in Ahvaz (Text in Persian), J. Ahvaz Univ. Med. Sci. 21 (1995) 69–76.
A.A. Velayati, K. Ghazisaidi, A. Bashiri, Y. Dolati, M. Mohammadi, J. Stanford, The distribution of environmental mycobacteria in Gilan region (text in Persian), J. Med. Counc. Islam. Repub. Iran 11 (3) (1992) 173–179.
S. Hadifar, S. Moghim, H. Gasemian-Safaei, H. Fazeli, F. Farid, M. Moghoofei, et al, Identification of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria isolates by polymerase chain reactionrestriction enzyme analysis of 360-bp fragment of rpob gene, J. Isfahan Med. School 31 (226) (2014) 1–11.
A.M. Alaeen, A.Z. Alaeen, H. Alaeen, A case report of fish tank granuloma in Khomein, Arak Med. Univ. J. 14 (57) (2011) 113–117.
F. Babamahmoodi, A. Babamahmoodi, B. Nikkhahan, Review of Mycobacterium
marinum infection reported from Iran and report of three new cases with sporotrichoid presentation, Iran. Red Crescent Med. J. 16 (2) (2014) 1–6.
S. Zaker Bostanabad, P. Salehian, A. Hashemi Shahraki, Isolation of Mycobacterium chelonae
in the sputum and cervical lymph nodes of patient with metastatic breast cancer, Mycobact. Dis. 2 (1) (2012) 1–3.
P. Heidarieh, A. Hashemi-Shahraki, A.D. Khosravi, Mycobacterium
arupense infection in HIV-infected patients from Iran, Int. J. STD AIDS 24 (6) (2013) 485–487.
B. Honarvar, H. Movahedan, M. Mahmoodi, F.M. Sheikholeslami, P. Farnia, Mycobacterium
aurum keratitis: an unusual etiology of a sight-threatening infection, Braz. J. Infect. Dis. 16 (2) (2012) 204–208.
S.M. Hosseini Fard, M.R. Yossefi, B. Esfandiari, S.A. Sefidgar, Mycobacterium
marinum as a cause of skin chronic granulomatous in the hand, Caspian J. Intern. Med. 2 (1)(2011) 198–200.
M. Golpour, M. Ghasemi, Nodules and bullae on the back of the hand with axillary spread. Diagnosis: fish tank or swimming pool granuloma, Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. 74 (5) (2008) 551.
M. Marjani, M. Farshidpour, P. Tabarsi, F.M. Sheikholslami, P. Farnia, Isolation of Mycobacterium
branderi, an unusual species from an acute myelogenous leukemia patient, Avicenna J. Med. 4 (1) (2014) 17–19.
F. Pourahmad, H. Shojaei, P. Heidarieh, A. Khosravi, A. Hashemi, Report of two cases of Mycobacterium
europaeum from Iran, Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 65 (6) (2012) 539–541.
M. Shamaei, M. Marjani, P. Farnia, P. Tabarsi, D. Mansouri, Human infections due to Mycobacterium
lentiflavum: first report in Iran, Iran. J. Microbiol. 2 (1) (2010) 29–31.
H. Shojaei, A. Hashemi, P. Heidarieh, N. Hosseini, A. Daei Naser, Chronic pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium
monacense infection: the first case from Iran, Ann. Lab. Med. 32 (1) (2012) 87–90.
M. Boloorsaz, S. Khalilzadeh, P. Farnia, S. Hakimi, A.A. Velayati, Mycobacterium
thermoresistibile infection in a child, Tanaffos 5 (3) (2006) 61–63.
H. Shojaei, P. Heidarieh, A. Hashemi, M.M. Feizabadi, A. Daei Naser, Species identification of neglected nontuberculous mycobacteria in a developing country, Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 64 (4) (2011) 265–271.
H. Shojaei, C. Daley, Z. Gitti, A. Hashemi, P. Heidarieh, I.R. Moore, et al, Mycobacterium
iranicum sp. Nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic species isolated from clinical specimens on three different continents, Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 63 (4) (2013) 1383–1389.
M. Gunaydin, K. Yanik, C. Eroglu, A. Sanic, I. Ceyhan, Z. Erturan, R. Durmaz, Distribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria strains, Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 12 (33) (2013) 1–6.
A. Babalik, T. Kuyucu, E.N. Ordu, D. Ernam, M. Partal, K. Koksalan, Non-tuberculous mycobacteria infection: 75 cases, Tuberk Toraks 60 (1) (2012) 20–31.
C. Bicmen, A.T. Gunduz, M. Coskun, G. Senol, A.K. Cirak, A. Ozsoz, Molecular detection and identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
complex and four clinically important nontuberculous mycobacterial species in smearnegative clinical samples by the genotype mycobacteria direct test, J. Clin. Microbiol. 49 (8) (2011) 2874.2878.
A. Ozbek, O. Aktas, Identification of three strains of Mycobacterium
species isolated from clinical samples using fatty acid methyl ester profiling, J. Int. Med. Res. 31 (2) (2003) 133.140.
C. Bicmen, M. Coskun, A.T. Gunduz, G. Senol, A.K. Cirak, G. Tibet, Nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from pulmonary specimens between 2004 and 2009: causative agent or not?, New Microbiol 33 (4) (2010) 399.403.
N. Albayrak, H. Simşek, F. Sezen, A. Arslantu N rk, G. Tarhan, I. Ceyhan, Evaluation of the distribution of non-tuberculous mycobacteria strains isolated in National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory in 2009.2010, Turkey, Mikrobiol. Bul. 46 (4) (2012) 560.567.
F.E. Aydin, M. Ulger, G. Emekdas, G. Aslan, S. Gunal, Isolation and identification of Mycobacterium
bovis and nontuberculous mycobacteria in raw milk samples in Mersin province, Mikrobiol. Bul. 46 (2) (2012) 283.289.
M. Kanlikama, C. Oasahinoglu, E. Akan, K. Ozcan, Mycobacterial species causing cervicofacial infection in Turkey, Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 250 (4) (1993) 237.239.
A. Ergin, T. Kocagoz, D. Us, Evaluation of 120 mycobacterial strains isolated from clinical specimens to the species level by polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme analysis, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 32 (6) (2000) 657.662.
A. Agacayak, Y. Bulut, A. Seyrek, Detection of Mycobacterium species distribution in the sputum samples of tuberculosis patients by PCR-RFLP method in Elazig province, Mikrobiol. Bu N l. 41 (2) (2007) 203.209.
G.E. Genc, E. Richter, Z. Erturan, Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria from hospital waters in Turkey, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Immunol. Scandinivica 121 (12) (2013) 1192.1197.
U. Cafri, G. Aslan, S. Direkel, G. Tarhan, I. Ceyhan, G. Emekdas, Identification and isolation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from environmental samples, Mikrobiyoloji Bu N lteni 44 (3) (2010) 395.403.
M. Konuk, E. Korcan, S. Dülgerbaki, M. Altındiş, Isolation and identification of mycobacteria from raw milk samples in Afyonkarahisar district of Turkey, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 115 (3) (2007) 343.347.
K.K. Yasar, F. Pehlivanoglu, G. Sengoz, N. Cabioglu, Successfully treated Mycobacterium abscessus
mastitis: a rare cause of breast masses, Indian J. Med. Microbiol. 29 (4) (2011) 425.427.
V. Yazisiz, F. Erbasan, D. Inan, G. Ongut, B.K. Akkaya, et al, Bone marrow infection caused by Mycobacterium avium
complex in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus, Lupus 19 (3) (2010) 323.326.
H.T. Sanal, F. Zor, M. Kocaog. lu, N. Bulakbaşi, Atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis and bursitis of the wrist, Diagn. Interv. Radiol. 15 (4) (2009) 266.268.
B. Ergan, L. Coplu, A. Alp, M. Artvinli, Mycobacterium smegmatis
Pneumonia, Respirology 9 (2) (2004) 283.285.
G. Aksu, C. Tirpan, C. Cavusoglu, S. Soydan, F. Altar, et al, Mycobacterium fortuitum
.chelonae complex infection in a child with complete interleukin-12 receptor beta 1 deficiency, Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 20 (5) (2001) 551.553.
Z.P. Onen, Z.C. Karahan, O. Akkoca Yildiz, G. Karabiyikoglu, Mycobacterium
simiae infection in an immunocompetent patient, with DNA analyses verification, Tu N berk. Toraks Derg. 58 (3) (2010) 306.310.
I. Ceyhan, G. Tarhan, S. Cesur, F. Gumuslu, Mycobacterium chelonae
keratitis following laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) specifically identified by INNO-LIPA method, Turk. J. Med. Sci. 35 (4) (2005) 273.277.
N. Edeer Karaca, S. Boisson-Dupuis, G. Aksu, J. Bustamante, G. Kandiloglu, N. Ozsan, et al, Granulomatous skin lesions, severe scrotal and lower limb edema due to mycobacterial infections in a child with complete IFN-c receptor-1 deficiency, Immunotherapy 4 (11) (2012) 1121–1127.
S.O. Wali, M.M. Abdelaziz, A.B. Krayem, Y.S. Samman, A.N. Shukairi, S.A. Mirdad, et al, The presence of atypical mycobacteria in the mouthwashes of normal subjects: role of tap water and oral hygiene, Ann. Thorac. Med. 3 (1) (2008) 5–8.
B. Varghese, Z. Memish, N. Abuljadayel, R. Al-Hakeem, F. Alrabiah, S.A. Al-Hajoj, Emergence of clinically relevant non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections in Saudi Arabia, Plos Negl. Trop. Dis. 7 (5) (2013) 2234–2238.
R. Zaman, Tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia: epidemiology and incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
and other mycobacterial species, Tubercle 72 (1) (1991) 43–49.
A.M. Somily, A.R. Al-Anazi, H.A. Babay, A.I. Al-Aska, M.A. Al- Hedaithy, W.K. Al-Hamoudi, et al, Mycobacterium chelonae
complex bacteremia from a post-renal transplant patient, Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 63 (1) (2010) 61–64.
A.N. Meshikhes, A. Al-Gassab, L.Y. Al-Jaffar, M. Tinguria, Z.S. Al-Meer, F. Borgio, Atypical mycobacteria: an unusual cause of breast abscess, Ann. Saudi Med. 17 (3) (1997) 337–339.
B. Varghese, S.E. Shajan, M.O. Al Saedi, S.A. Al-Hajoj, First case report of chronic pulmonary lung disease caused by Mycobacterium abscessus
in two immunocompetent patients in Saudi Arabia, Ann. Saudi Med. 32 (3) (2012) 312–314.
M.A. Enani, H.H. Frayha, A.A. Halim, An appendiceal abscess due to Mycobacterium
kansasii in a child with AIDS, Clin. Infect. Dis. 27 (4) (1998) 891–892.
R. AlKhodair, S. Al-Khenaizan, Fish tank granuloma: misdiagnosed as cutaneous leishmaniasis, Int. J. Dermatol. 49 (2010) 53–55.
S. Wali, Mycobacterium chelonae
empyema with bronchopleural fistula in an immunocompetent patient, Ann. Thorac. Med. 4 (4) (2009) 213–215.
A.F. Al-Mobeireek, Rapidly growing mycobacterial pulmonary infection in association with severe gastroesophageal reflux disease, Saudi Med. J. 23 (7) (2002) 854–856.
F.M. Al Majid, Peritonitis due to Mycobacterium fortuitum
following gastric banding, Saudi J. Gastroenterol. 16 (2) (2010) 113–115.
N. Siddiqi, I. Sheikh, Peritonitis caused by Mycobacterium
abscesses in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, Saudi J. Kidney Dis. Transplant. 23 (2) (2012) 321– 324.
M.A. Simbli, F.A. Niaz, J.S. Al-Wakeel, Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in a peritoneal dialysis patient presenting with complicated Mycobacterium fortuitum
peritonitis, Saudi J. Kidney Dis. Transplant. 23 (3) (2012) 635– 641.
A.U. Syed, R. Hussain, A.N. Bhat, M. al Rasheed, H. al Qethami, et al, Mediastinitis due to Mycobacterium fortuitum
infection following Fontan operation in a child, Scand. Cardiovasc. J. 31 (5) (1997) 311–313.
A.M. Hakawi, A.A. Alrajhi, Septic arthritis due to Mycobacterium
szulgai in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 37 (3) (2005) 235–237.
S.H. Annobil, G.A. Jamjoom, R. Bobo, J. Iyengar, Fatal lipoid pneumonia in an infant complicated by Mycobacterium fortuitum
infection, Trop. Geogr. Med. 44 (1–2) (1992) 160–164.
H.I. Hakami, A.A. Alhazmi, A.A. Alrajhi, Mycobacterium abscessus
peritonitis associated with laparoscopic gastric banding, BMC Infect. Dis. 13 (2013) 323.
H. Almoallim, L. Alharbi, Z. Alshareef, G. Wali, Case of erosive polyarthritis in a patient diagnosed with a suspicion of atypical mycobacteria, Open Rheumatol. J. 28 (7) (2013) 64–66.
O. Abbas, N. Marrouch, M.M. Kattar, S. Zeynoun, A.G. Kibbi, R.A. Rached, et al, Cutaneous non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections: a clinical and histopathological study of 17 cases from Lebanon, J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 25 (1) (2011) 33–42.
R. Pinto-Powell, K.N. Olivier, B.J. Marsh, S. Donaldson, H. Worth Parker, W. Boyle, et al, Skin testing with Mycobacterium avium
sensitin to identify infection with M. avium
complex in patients with cystic fibrosis, Clin. Infect. Dis. 22 (3) (1996) 560–562.
F.M.T. Lewis, B.J. Marsh, C.F. von Reyn, Fish tank exposure and cutaneous infections due to Mycobacterium
marinum: tuberculin skin testing, treatment, and prevention, Clin. Infect. Dis. 37 (3) (2003) 390–397.
R.N. Hamam, B. Noureddin, H.I. Salti, R. Haddad, J.M. Khoury, Recalcitrant post-LASIK Mycobacterium chelonae
Keratitis eradicated after the use of fourth-generation fluoroquinolone, Ophthalmology 113 (6) (2006) 950–954.
M.M. Balkis, M.M. Kattar, G.F. Araj, S.S. Kanj, Fatal disseminated Mycobacterium
simiae infection in a non-HIV patient, Int. J. Infect. dis. 13 (5) (2009) 286–287.
L.N. Jarikre, Case report: disseminated Mycobacterium
gordonae infection in a nonimmuno compromised host, Am. J. Med. Sciences 302 (6) (1991) 382–384.
L.N. Jarikre, Mycobacterium
gordonae genitourinary disease, Genitourin. Med. 68 (1) (1992) 45–46.
H. Al Soub, M. Al Maslamani, J. Al Khuwaiter, Y. El Deeb, M. Abu Khattab, Myocardial abscess and bacteremia complicating Mycobacterium fortuitum
pacemaker infection: case report and review of the literature, Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 28 (11) (2009) 1032–1034.
H. Al Soub, E. Al-Maslamani, M. Al-Maslamani, Mycobacterium fortuitum
abdominal wall abscesses following liposuction, Indian J. Plast. Surg. 41 (1) (2008) 58–61.
I. Ahmed, K. Jabeen, R. Hasan, Identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical specimens at a tertiary care hospital: a cross-sectional study, BMC Infect. Dis. 13 (493) (2013) 1–7.
T. Khanum, S.A. Rasool, M. Ajaz, A.I. Khan, Isolation-drug resistance profile and molecular characterization of indigenous typical and atypical mycobacteria, Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 24 (4) (2011) 527–532.
N. Akhtar, A. Bari, K. Nomani, Incidence of typical and a typical mycobacteria in pulmonary infections at Lahore – a study of 500 cases, J. Pak. Med. Assoc. 34 (4) (1984) 84–87.
A. Afzal, M. Nadeem, S. Aman, A.H. Kazmi, Mycobacterium
marinum infection: A case report, J. Pak. Assoc. Dermatol. 97 (2009) 48–51.
K.I. Hassan, A.A. Ali, Detection of Mycobacterium avium
in milk powder using species specific pcr, Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Technol. 2 (2) (2012) 115–119.
A.A. Al-Sulami, A.M.R. Al-Taee, Q.H. Wida'a, Isolation and identification of Mycobacterium avium
complex and other nontuberculosis mycobacteria from drinking-water in Basra governorate, Iraq, East. Mediterr. Health J. 18 (3) (2012) 274– 278.
A.M. Hamzah, Mycobacterium
Spp. isolated from horses fecal samples, Int. J. Med. Pharm. Sci. 3 (3) (2013) 23–28.
M.A. El-Khalawany, Atypical mycobacterial cutaneous infections in Egyptians: a clinicopathological study, J. Dermatol. 41 (4) (2014) 303–310.
G. Bamias, G.L. Daikos, S.I. Siakavellas, G. Kaltsa, S. Smilakou, I. Katsogridakis, et al, Atypical mycobacterial infection presenting as persistent skin lesion in a patient with ulcerative colitis, Case Rep. Med. 2011 (2011) 1–4.
S. Godreuil, H. Marchandin, A.L. Michon, M. Ponsada, G. Chyderiotis, P. Brisou, et al, Mycobacterium
riyadhense pulmonary infection France and Bahrain, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 18 (1) (2012) 176–178.
S. Alkhawaja, N. Tammam, N. Khalifa, Mycobacterium
marinum infection after infliximab therapy, Iran. J. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 9 (2010) 255–257.
E. Mokaddas, S. Ahmad, Species spectrum of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical specimens in Kuwait, Curr. Microbiol. 56 (5) (2008) 413–417.
K. Al-Benwan, S. Ahmad, E. Mokaddas, M. Johny, M.M. Kapoor, Diagnosis of endocarditis caused by Mycobacterium abscessus
, Ann. Saudi Med. 30 (5) (2010) 408–411.
S.H. Al-Mahruqi, J. van Ingen, S. Al-Busaidy, M.J. Boeree, S. Al-Zadjali, A. Patel, et al, Clinical relevance of nontuberculous mycobacteria, Oman, Emerg. Infect. Dis. J. 15 (2) (2009) 292–294.
K.L. Winthrop, E. Chang, S. Yamashita, M.F. Iademarco, P.A. Lobue, Nontuberculous mycobacteria infections and antitumor necrosis factor – a therapy, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15 (10) (2009) 1556–1561.
K. Gopinath, S. Singh, Non-tuberculous mycobacteria in tbendemic countries: are we neglecting the danger?, PLoS 4 (4) (2010) 1–4.
E. Tortoli, P.G. Rogasi, E. Fantoni, C. Beltrami, A. De Francisci, A. Mariottini, Infection due to a novel mycobacterium, mimicking multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
, Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 16 (8) (2010) 1130–1134.
B. Springer, L. Stockman, K. Teschner, G.D. Roberts, E.C. Bö ttger, Two-laboratory collaborative study on identification of mycobacteria: molecular versus phenotypic methods, J. Clin. Microbiol. 34 (2) (1996) 296–303.
L. Dvorska, M. Bartos, G. Martin, W. Erler, I. Pavlik, Strategies for differentiation, identification and typing of medically important species of mycobacteria by molecular methods, Vet. Med. 46 (11–12) (2001) 309–328.
E. Wolisky, T.K. Rynearson, Mycobacteria in soil and their relation to disease associated strains, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 97 (6) (1968) 1032–1037.
S. Goslee, E. Wolisky, Water as a source of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 113 (3) (1976) 287–292.
T.H. Brown, The rapidly growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium fortuitum
chelonei, Infect. Control 6 (1985) 283–288.
S.C. Yang, P.R. Hsueh, H.C. Lai, L.J. Teng, L.M. Huang, J.M. Chen, et al, High prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in rapidly growing mycobacteria in Taiwan, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47 (6) (2003) 958–1962.
J.M. Lim, J.H. Kim, H.J. Yang, Management of infections with rapidly growing mycobacteria after unexpected complications of skin and subcutaneous surgical procedures, Arch. Plast. Surg. 39 (1) (2012) 18–24.
D.E. Griffith, T.B. Aksamit, A. Brown-Elliott, A. Catanzaro, C. Daley, F. Gordin, et al, An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175 (2007) 367–416.
N. Martín-Casabona, A.R. Bahrmand, J. Bennedsen, V.O. Thomsen, M. Curcio, M. Fauville-Dufaux, et al, Nontuberculous mycobacteria: patterns of isolation. A multicountry retrospective survey, Int. J. Tuberc. Lung. Dis. 8 (10) (2004) 1186–1193.
M. Mirsaidi, M. Farshidpour, G. Ebrahimi, S. Aliberti, J.O. Falkinham III, Management of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in the elderly, Eur. J. Intern. Med. 25 (4) (2014) 356–363.
S.K. Field, D. Fisher, R.L. Cowie, Mycobacterium avium
complex pulmonary disease in patients without HIV infection, Chest 126 (2) (2004) 566–581.
P. Baghaei, P. Tabarsi, P. Farnia, M. Marjani, F.M. Sheikholeslami, M. Chitsaz, et al, Pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium
simiae in Iran's national referral center for tuberculosis, J. Infect. Dev. Ctries. 6 (1) (2012) 23– 28.
V. Lévy-Frébault, B. Pangon, A. Buré , C. Katlama, C. Marche, H.L. David, Mycobacterium
simiae and Mycobacterium avium
- M. intracellular mixed infection in acquired immune deficiency syndrome, J. Clin. Microbiol. 25 (1) (1987) 154–157.
N. Sriyabhaya, S. Wongwatana, Pulmonary infection caused by atypical mycobacteria: a report of 24 cases in Thailand, Rev. Infect. Dis. 3 (5) (1981) 1085–1089.
J. Canueto-Quintero, F.J. Caballero-Granado, M. Herrero- Romero, Epidemiological, clinical, and prognostic differences between the diseases caused by Mycobacterium
kansasii and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a multicenter study, Clin. Infect. Dis. 37 (4) (2003) 584–590.
M.V. Leal Arranz, A. Gaafar, M.J. Unzaqa Barañ ano, J.A. Crespo Notario, R. Cisterna Cáncer, F. García Cebriá n, Clinical and epidemiological study of disease caused by Mycobacterium
kansasii in the metropolitan area of Bilbao, Spain, Arch. Bronconeumol. 41 (4) (2005) 189–196.
J.L. Cook, Nontuberculous mycobacteria: opportunistic environmental pathogens for predisposed hosts, Br. Med. Bull. 96 (2010) 45–59.
M. Dailloux, M.L. Abalain, C. Laurain, L. Lebrun, C. Loos- Ayav, et al, Respiratory infections associated with nontuberculous mycobacteria in non-HIV patients, Eur. Resp. J. 28 (6) (2006) 1211–1215.
M.D. Yates, J.M. Grange, C.H. Colins, The nature of mycobacterial disease in southeast England, 1977–84, J. Epidemiol. Commun. Health 40 (1986) 295–330.
E.E. Bodle, J.A. Cunningham, P.N. Della-Latta, W. Schluger, L. Saiman, Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients without HIV infection, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14 (3) (2008) 390–396.
V.O. Thomsen, A.B. Andersen, H. Miö rner, Incidence and clinical significance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical specimens during a 2-y nationwide survey, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 34 (9) (2002) 648–653.
K. Lenart, A. Sajduda, E. Augustynowicz-Kopec, J. Dziadek, Profiling Mycobacterium
xenopi with restriction fragment length polymorphism of insertion element IS1395, Int. J. Infect. dis. 15 (5) (2011) 321–325.
A.H. Shahraki, P. Heidarieh, M. Drancourt, M. Hashemzadeh, S. Khandan, et al, Infection caused by an unusual isolate of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria in Iran, Int. J. Mycobacteriol. 4 (S1) (2014) 162.
M.A. De Groote, G. Huitt, Infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria, Clin. Infect. Dis. 42 (15) (2006) 1756–1763.
G. Ebrahimi, M. Farshidpour, M.B. Allen, M. Mirsaeidi, J.O. Falkinham III, Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in North America, Int. J. Mycobacteriol. 4 (S1) (2014) 154–155.
M. Al-Knawy, W. Bosch, H. Garner, M. Mirsaeidi, J. Cawley, P. Murray, et al, A descriptive analysis of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections (NTM) of the upper extremity, Int. J. Mycobacteriol. 4 (S1) (2014) 37–38.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]
|This article has been cited by|
||Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria: Molecular and Physiological Bases of Virulence and Adaptation to Ecological Niches
| ||André C. Pereira,Beatriz Ramos,Ana C. Reis,Mónica V. Cunha |
| ||Microorganisms. 2020; 8(9): 1380 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infectionsA neglected and emerging problem
| ||Imran Ahmed,Simon Tiberi,Joveria Farooqi,Kauser Jabeen,Dorothy Yeboah-Manu,Giovanni Battista Migliori,Rumina Hasan |
| ||International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2020; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||An 8-year study on the prevalence and drug resistance of Mycobacteria in clinical specimens (2011-2018)
| ||Jafar Aghajani,Shima Saif,Parissa Farnia,Poopak Farnia,Jalaledin Ghanavi,Ali Akbar Velayati |
| ||Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health. 2019; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Molecular characterization of environmental mycobacterial species from leprosy endemic tribal regions of North Purulia District, West Bengal
| ||Vikram Singh,RavindraPurushottam Turankar,Anjana Goel |
| ||International Journal of Mycobacteriology. 2019; 8(4): 381 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||BCG Vaccination Induces M. avium and M. abscessus Cross-Protective Immunity
| ||Getahun Abate,Fahreta Hamzabegovic,Christopher S. Eickhoff,Daniel F. Hoft |
| ||Frontiers in Immunology. 2019; 10 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Effect of growth media and phase on Raman spectra and discrimination of mycobacteria
| ||Cynthia Hanson,Morgan M. Bishop,Jacob T. Barney,Elizabeth Vargis |
| ||Journal of Biophotonics. 2019; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease
| ||Leah Lande,Jason George,Theodore Plush |
| ||Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 2018; : 1 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Comparison of polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme analysis method and DNA sequence analysis results in the identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria
| ||Özgür Appak,Selçuk Türkel,Nuran Esen,Ayse Aydan Özkütük |
| ||Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica. 2018; 65(4): 515 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||High rates of Mycobacterium fortuitum isolation in respiratory samples from Iranian patients with suspected tuberculosis: is it clinically important?
| ||Mahsa Irandoost,Mehrnoosh Zare Ghanbari,Fatemeh Sakhaee,Farzam Vaziri,Fatemeh Rahimi Jamnani,Seyed Davar Siadat,Abolfazl Fateh |
| ||Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2018; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Esophageal Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare
infection in a bone marrow transplant patient: Case report and literature review
| ||Rong Hou,Ravi Nayak,Steven M. Pincus,Jinping Lai,Louay M. Omran,Samer Alkaade,Getahun Abate |
| ||Transplant Infectious Disease. 2018; : e13019 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Genetic Diversity and Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolated from Clinical Samples in Tehran, Iran
| ||Mehdi Davari,Mahsa Irandoost,Fatemeh Sakhaee,Farzam Vaziri,Abbas Akhavan Sepahi,Fatemeh Rahimi Jamnani,Seyed Davar Siadat,Abolfazl Fateh |
| ||Microbial Drug Resistance. 2018; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Computed Tomography Findings of Pulmonary Mycobacterium simiae Infection
| ||Ayeh Baghizadeh,Payam Mehrian,Poopak Farnia |
| ||Canadian Respiratory Journal. 2017; 2017: 1 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Saudi Arabia and Gulf Countries: A Review
| ||Hawra Al-Ghafli,Sahal Al-Hajoj |
| ||Canadian Respiratory Journal. 2017; 2017: 1 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Nontuberculosis mycobacterial infections at a specialized tuberculosis treatment centre in the Republic of Korea
| ||Hee Jung Yoon,Hwa Young Choi,Moran Ki |
| ||BMC Infectious Diseases. 2017; 17(1) |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Distribution of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria strains from suspected tuberculosis patients by heat shock protein 65 PCRRFLP
| ||Ali Nour-Neamatollahie,Nayereh Ebrahimzadeh,Seyed Davar Siadat,Farzam Vaziri,Mona Eslami,Abbas Akhavan Sepahi,Sharareh Khanipour,Morteza Masoumi,Fatemeh Sakhaee,Morteza Ghazanfari Jajin,Ahmadreza Bahrmand,Abolfazl Fateh |
| ||Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2016; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Baliklarin Baslica Bakteriyel Zoonozlari
| ||Ilker HANCI,Ertan Emek ONUK |
| ||Etlik Veteriner Mikrobiyoloji Dergisi. 2016; 27(2): 123 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|