• Users Online: 26
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 197-204

Limonia acidissima L. leaf mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles: A potent tool against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Postgraduate Department of Studies in Botany, Environmental Biology Laboratory, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication9-Feb-2017

Correspondence Address:
Tarikere C Taranath
Environmental Biology Laboratory, Post Graduate Department of Botany, Pavate Nagar Karnatak University, Dharwad 580003, Karnataka
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmyco.2016.03.004

Rights and Permissions

Objective/background: The present investigation was undertaken to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles using Limonia acidissima L. and to test their efficacy against the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Methods: The formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles was confirmed with UV–visible spectrophotometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows the presence of bio-molecules involved in the stabilization of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The shape and size was confirmed with atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, and high resolution transmission electron microscope. These nanoparticles were tested for their effect on the growth of M. tuberculosis through the microplate alamar blue assay technique.
Results: The UV–visible data reveal that an absorbance peak at 374nm confirms formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles and they are spherical in shape with sizes between 12nm and 53nm. These nanoparticles control the growth of M. tuberculosis at 12.5μg/mL.
Conclusion: Phytosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles is a green, eco-friendly technology because it is inexpensive and pollution free. In the present investigation, based on our results we conclude that the aqueous extract of leaves of L. acidissima can be used for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles. These nanoparticles control the growth of M. tuberculosis and this was confirmed with the microplate alamar blue method. The potential of biogenic zinc oxide nanoparticles may be harnessed as a novel medicine ingredient to combat tuberculosis disease.

Keywords: Limonia acidissima L., MABA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycolic acid, Zinc oxide nanoparticles

How to cite this article:
Patil BN, Taranath TC. Limonia acidissima L. leaf mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles: A potent tool against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Int J Mycobacteriol 2016;5:197-204

How to cite this URL:
Patil BN, Taranath TC. Limonia acidissima L. leaf mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles: A potent tool against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Int J Mycobacteriol [serial online] 2016 [cited 2022 Jan 18];5:197-204. Available from: https://www.ijmyco.org/text.asp?2016/5/2/197/199930

  Introduction Top

In modern science, the entire biological field has been using nanotechnology within a short amount of time. This era of nanotechnology helps in the production of materials at the smallest possible scale. Nanotechnology has considerably improved and revolutionized plenty of technologies that are used in industrial sectors including food safety, medicine, and other fields. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are used in the generation of biological applications including semiconducting, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric properties, and have versatile applications in transparent electronics, UV light emitters, personal care products, and coating and paints [1],[2]. Zinc oxide nanoparticles with various sizes and shapes have been widely exploited in numerous technological applications as biosensors in medical diagnostics [3]. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have also been proposed as antimicrobial preservatives for wood and food products [4],[5]. Nanoparticles enhance the immobilization and activity of catalysts in the pharmaceutical industry [6],[7], gas sensors [7], antimicrobial activity [8] electronic nanodevices, and UV filters [9] due to the novel properties exhibited by the material. For all these requirements of nanoparticles different methods are developed via physical, chemical, and biological methods; however, these physicochemical methods [10] generate large amounts of hazardous by-products. Biological methods are simple, eco-friendly reaction protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles by using plant extracts that provide a biological synthesis route of several metallic nanoparticles which are more eco-friendly and allows capping, reduction, and control with well-defined size and shape. The bio-fabrication of zinc nanoparticles by Justicia adhatoda leaf extract [11] and Aloe barbadensis leaf extract are used to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles [12], gold nanoparticles are synthesized by using plants such as lemon grass and neem [13],[14], and Limonia acidissima leaf extract has been used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles [15]. Zinc oxide as a nontoxic, inexpensive, and nonhygroscopic polar inorganic crystalline material is very economical, safe, and easily available Lewis acid catalyst, which has gained much interest in various organic transformations, sensors, transparent conductors, and surface acoustic-wave devices [16],[17],[18].

Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The World Health Organization declared TB as a global emergency in 1993. According to a recent World Health Organization report, there were 1.5 million TB-related deaths in 2014. TB is the world's second most common cause of death after human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. The presence of immunosuppressive factors like diabetes, alcoholism, malnutrition, chronic lung disease, and human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS may increase the chances of TB infection [19],[20]. The disease affects the lungs mainly, but can also develop as pulmonary TB in the central nervous system, circulatory system, or elsewhere in the body [21].

Available TB treatment involves daily administration of four oral antibiotics for a period of ≥6months [22]. Due to a high percentage of side effects (ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity) and the extended duration of treatment results in low patient adherence [23]. Based on this concept the field of nanotechnology focuses on the preparation of TB diagnostic kits which are currently under trial. This technology does not require any skill and is cost effective. Another significant advancement of this technology is that the use of nanoparticles as drug carriers has high stability and carrier capacity. Today, different types of nanoparticles are used to control the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis viz the alginate nanoparticles help the bioadhesive characteristics of intestinal mucosa therapy which increases the time period available for its absorption [24]. Chitosan, rifampicin, and polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are used in the controlled delivery system for TB treatment [25]. Banu and Rathod [26] used biogenic silver nanoparticles to inhibit the growth of M. tuberculosis [26]. The decoction of L. acidissima leaves are used for the treatment of constipation, vomiting, and also as a cardiotonic and diuretic in Indian folk medicine [27]. The leaves are reported to possess hepatoprotective activity [28]. Leaves, bark, and fruits of this plant have been used in traditional medicine for centuries due to their antimicrobial [29], antifungal [30], astringent, anti-inflammatory [31], and insulin secretagogue [32] activities. Essential oil isolated from the leaves has antibacterial and antifungal activity [33]. In view of all these aspects, the present investigation was undertaken to bio-fabricate zinc oxide nanoparticles using L. acidissima leaf extract and to test their efficacy against TB bacterial growth.

  Materials and methods Top

L. acidissima Linn. Syn. Feronia elephantum Correa, (wood apple) is a medicinally important plant ([Figure 1]A and [Figure 1]B). It is a moderate sized deciduous tree grown throughout India. Dark greenish fresh leaves of wood apple without any infection were sampled from the botanical garden at Karnatak University, Dharwad Karnataka, India, and zinc nitrate (Hi-media, Mumbai, India) was used for the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles.
Figure 1: (A) Limonia acidissima L. leaves; (B) habitat of the plant.

Click here to view

Preparation of the plant extract

Twenty grams of fresh leaves were washed with tap water followed by Milli-Q water and then were dried, finely cut, and soaked in a 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask containing 100-mL Milli-Q water and boiled at 60°C for 1h. The leaf extract was allowed to cool at room temperature, filtered through Whatman number-1 filter paper, and the filtrate was stored at 4°C for further experimental use.

Biosynthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles

Five milliliters of the extract was added to a 95-mL zinc nitrate solution in a 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask, and incubated at 80°C for 10min. The pH was adjusted to 10 using 0.1N HCl or 0.1N NaOH. Reduction of zinc ions to zinc nanoparticles was observed after 72h. The leaf extract and zinc nitrate were maintained as controls throughout the experimental period.

Characterization was done with a UV–visible spectrophotometer (Jasco Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) at a resolution of 1nm, with a wavelength range of 300–600nm. The solution was centrifuged (Remi R-8C) at 4500g for 40minutes, and pellets were redispersed in Milli-Q water. The centrifugation and dispersion were repeated to ensure the removal of excess biomolecules. The purified pellets were dried in an oven, subjected to the fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with the help of KBr pellets, and recorded the spectrum (U-3010 spectrophotometer) at a resolution of 4nm with a range of 400–4000 cm−1. Particle size and distribution of the nanoparticles were determined using an atomic-force microscopy (AFM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) model of Tap190Al-G of nanosurf easy scan2 and JEOL 3010, respectively. An energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer was used for analysis (EDAX-TSL Ametek).

Anti-TB activity using microplate alamar blue dye assay method

The anti-TB activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles was assessed against M. tuberculosis (H37 RV strain) American Type Culture Collection No-27294 using a standard microplate alamar blue dye assay method [34]. This method is nontoxic, employs a thermally stable reagent, and shows good correlation with proportional and BACTEC radiometric methods. Two-hundred microliters of sterile deionized water was added to all outer perimeter wells of a sterile 96 well plate to minimize evaporation of the medium from the test wells during incubation. The 96 wells of the plate received 100μL of Middlebrook 7H9 broth and a serial dilution of zinc oxide nanoparticles were made directly on the plate. The final zinc oxide nanoparticle concentrations tested were 0.8–100μg/mL, and standard antibiotics like pyrazinamide, ciprofloxacin, and streptomycin were used. Plates were covered and sealed with parafilm and incubated at 37°C for 5days. After incubation, 25μL of the freshly prepared 1:1 mixture of alamar blue reagent and 10% Tween 80 was added to the plate and incubated for 24h. A blue color in the well was considered as no bacterial growth, and the pink color was scored as growth. The minimum inhibitory concentration was defined as the lowest drug concentration which prevented the color change from blue to pink.

  Results and discussion Top

The biological approaches for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using L. acidissima leaf extract at 80°C for a 10-min duration for the reduction of zinc nitrate to zinc oxide nanoparticles by bioreduction, stabilizing, and capping with leaf extract, has a peak at 374nm in the UV–visible spectra data ([Figure 2]) which this is very similar to the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles by Parthenium leaf extract [8].
Figure 2: UV–visible spectrum of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by leaf extract of Limonia acidissima. Note. Abs = absorbance.

Click here to view

[Figure 3] and [Table 1] shows the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum recorded from the zinc oxide nanoparticles obtained after oven drying of the centrifuged fine powder. The amino acid residue and the peptide of protein presents the well-known signature in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The phenol molecules are present at 3412 cm−1 stretching vibration, and the 1610-cm−1 band reveals the carboxylate group. The peak at 1056 cm−1 was assigned to the Si–O–Si stretching vibration of proteins while their weak bending vibrations of 1268 cm−1 was assigned to the carbonyl stretching vibration of guaiacyl ring. The 1409-cm−1 band represents the C–C stretching of the aromatic ring. The infrared study reveals the presence of aromatic ring proteins and amide bonds have a strong ability for the formation and covering of metal nanoparticles. The characteristic absorption peak of the zinc oxide bond was found to be 543 cm−1 [35],[36].
Figure 3: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of biogenic zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Click here to view
Table 1: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy absorption peaks and their associated functional groups involved in the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Click here to view

[Figure 4] shows the strong signals of zinc and oxygen atoms in the nanoparticles recorded in the energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and other signals from C, Mg, Ca, and Si atoms were also observed.
Figure 4: Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer spectrum of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Click here to view

The morphology and size of nanoparticles were ascertained from the AFM and HR-TEM images. AFM data reveal that the particles are monodispersed and spherical in shape and that the size ranges from 12nm to 53nm ([Figure 5]A) in two- and three-dimensional structures of the nanoparticles with a height of 14.4nm ([Figure 5]B). The distance from each other is 11.3–56.52nm ([Figure 5]C). The particles are spherical in shape and some of the particles are agglomerates. The HR-TEM image confirms the formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles and they have an average size of about 12–53nm ([Figure 5] and [Figure 6]). The obtained zinc oxide nanoparticles are similar to that of A. barbadensis [12].
Figure 5: (A) Two-dimensional structure; (B) three-dimensional image; (C) particle size distribution of zinc nanoparticles.

Click here to view
Figure 6: High-resolution transmission electron microscopy image of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Click here to view

XRD was performed to further confirm the action of the zinc oxide phase of the nanoparticles. The XRD of the obtained nanoparticles is shown in [Figure 7]. The XRD peaks were identified as (100), (002), (101), (102), (110), and (112) reflections, respectively. All of the diffraction peaks can be indexed to the spherical and hexagonal zinc oxide phase by comparison with the data from Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards card number 89-7102. The narrow and strong diffraction peaks indicate that the product has a well defined crystalline particle structure. The Scherrer formula was used for the calculation of the particles sizes and found to be in the range of 12–53nm.
Figure 7: X-ray powder diffraction spectrum of zinc oxide nanoparticles with Bragg's diffraction values shown in parentheses. The absorbance is expressed in terms of arbitrary unit (a.u.).

Click here to view

Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on M. tuberculosis

Reports from assays on the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the M. tuberculosis system are meager. However, there are few reports on the toxic effects of alginate nanoparticles which possess bioadhesive characteristics to intestinal mucosa therapy which increases the time period available for its absorption [24]. Chitosan, rifampicin, and polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are used in controlled delivery systems for TB treatment [25]. Banu and Rathod [26] used the biogenic silver nanoparticles to inhibit the growth of M. tuberculosis [26]. [Table 2] and [Figure 1] shows the inhibition of M. tuberculosis growth after being treated with zinc oxide nanoparticle solution. The bacteria were exposed to different concentrations (0.8μg/mL, 1.6μg/mL, 3.12μg/mL, 6.25μg/mL, 12.5μg/mL, 25μg/mL, 50μg/mL, and 100μg/mL) of zinc oxide nanoparticle solution and showed the bacterial sensitivity with increasing concentrations of solution exposed to the M. tuberculosis. Zinc nanoparticles after completion of the incubation period showed a blue color in the well which is considered as no bacterial growth, and pink color is scored as a growth. Bacterial growth was inhibited from 12.5μg/mL to 100μg/mL of zinc oxide nanoparticles. However, at a concentration of 12.5μg/mL the zinc oxide nanoparticles have a minimum inhibitory concentration or modest effect on bacterial growth. The mycobacterium were sensitive at 100μg/mL of leaf extract but resistant to zinc nitrate solution in all concentrations ([Figure 8] and [Table 2]). Standard antibiotics like pyrazinamide and ciprofloxacin shows the minimum inhibitory concentration at 3.12μg/mL but streptomycin shows 6.25μg/mL.
Figure 8: Microplatealamar blue assay method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations of biogenic zinc oxide nanoparticles against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: (A) biogenic zinc nanoparticles; (B) zinc nitrate; (C) leaf extract.

Click here to view
Table 2: Shows the results of antituberculosis activity.

Click here to view

The current investigation suggests that the biologically synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles from a medicinal plant can be used as a better alternative antimicrobial drug for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.

There are meager reports on the activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles on M. tuberculosis. Although zinc oxide nanoparticles can be internalized into bacteria, less or no genotoxic potential has been reported in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli [37],[38]. In [Figure 8]A, 100μg/mL, 50μg/mL, 25μg/mL, and 12.5μg/mL of zinc oxide nanoparticle solution inhibited the growth of bacteria where the zinc oxide nanoparticles initiate a lipid peroxidation reaction subsequently causing DNA damage, glutathione depletion, disruption of membrane morphology, and electron transport chain, which leads to cell apoptosis [39]. The concentration and size (12–53nm) are two important factors that may affect cell apoptosis. In [Figure 9], the zinc oxide nanoparticles are found to be attached on the surface of the bacterial cell membrane. After that it enters into the cytoplasm of mycobacterium via endocytosis and the smaller sized nanoparticles (12–53nm) penetrate the bacterial cell membrane which inactivates the enzymes essential for adenosine triphosphate production [7],[40] that leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species and eventually bacterial cell apoptosis [41]. The zinc oxide nanoparticles may react with sulfur or phosphorus-containing soft bases, such as R-S-R, R-SH, RS-, or PR3, and it promotes the loss of DNA replication ability [42],[42],[44]. Thus, the sulfur-containing protein in the membrane or inside the cell and phosphorus-containing elements like DNA are likely to be preferential sites for the action of zinc oxide nanoparticles [44].
Figure 9: Schematic diagram depicting the possible mechanism of activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles on Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Click here to view

The inhibition depletes the sites of mycolic acid transfer to the cell wall. Mycolic acids present in cell walls are known to be specifically attached to the 5-position of distal D-arabinose residue as shown by Azuma and Yamamura [45]. The depletion of newly synthesized mycolic acids must find alternative sites for transfer. This transfer is thought to be diverted to the trehalose molecule, which causes overproduction of trehalose monomycolate and trehalose dimycolate. This effect of ethambutol may trigger a cascade of changes in the lipid metabolism of Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis leading to cell damage and eventually to cell apoptosis [46],[47],[48]. Zinc oxide nanoparticles may bring about bacterial cell apoptosis as with ethambutol. [Figure 9] shows the schematic representation of the possible mechanism of activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles on M. tuberculosis.

  Conclusion Top

This investigation demonstrates that zinc oxide nanoparticles can be synthesized through a green approach that is an inexpensive, pollution free, and eco-friendly method using L. acidissima leaf extract as a bio-templating agent. The biogenic zinc oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape and ranges from 12nm to 53nm. Based on this observation, an interaction between zinc oxide nanoparticles and the cell surface affects the permeability of the membrane where nanoparticles enter and induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in the bacterial cell, subsequently resulting in the inhibition of cell growth and eventually resulting in cell death.

  Conflicts of interest Top

The authors have no conflicts of interest.

  Acknowledgments Top

The authors thank the Chairman of the Postgraduate Department of Studies in Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad, India, for providing the necessary facilities. B.N.P. acknowledges the financial support in the form of a UGC–UPE: University Grant Commission–University with Potential for Excellence fellowship (reference number KU/Sch/UGC-UPE/2013-14/1101) and the UGC–DSA–I: University Grant Commission–Departmental Special Assistance–I phase program of the Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad Campus. The authors also thank USIC: University Scientific Instrumentation Centre, K.U. Dharwad, STIC: Sophisticated Test and Instrumentation Centre, Kochin, SRM University, and DST: Department of Science and Technology Nano unit, IITM: Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai for providing the necessary instrumentation facility.

  References Top

Z.L. Wang, Nanostructures of zinc oxide, Mater. Today 7 (2004) 26–33.  Back to cited text no. 1
M.S. Akhtar, S. Ameen, S.A. Ansari, et al, Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanorods and balls nanomaterials for dye sensitized solar cells, J. Nanoeng. Nanomanuf. 1 (2011) 71–76.  Back to cited text no. 2
Z. Zhang, H. Chen, J. Zhong, et al, Nanotip-based QCM biosensors, in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition, 2006, pp. 545– 549.  Back to cited text no. 3
V. Aruoja, H. Dubourguier, C. Kasamet, et al, Toxicity of nanoparticles of CuO, ZnO and TiO2 to microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Sci. Total Environ. 407 (2009) 1461–1468.  Back to cited text no. 4
C.A. Clausen, S.N. Kartal, R.A. Arango, et al, The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6 (2011) 427.  Back to cited text no. 5
P. Wang, Nanoscale biocatalyst systems, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 17 (2006) 574–579.  Back to cited text no. 6
B. Baruwati, D.K. Kumar, S.V. Manorama, Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline ZnO nanoparticles: a competitive sensor for LPG and EtOH, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119 (2006) 676–682.  Back to cited text no. 7
P. Rajiv, S. Rajeshwari, R. Venckatesh, Bio-fabrication of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. and its size-dependent antifungal activity against plant fungal pathogens, Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 112 (2013) 384–387.  Back to cited text no. 8
S. Singh, P. Thiyagarajan, K.M. Kant, et al, Structure, microstructure and physical properties of ZnO based materials in various forms: bulk, thin film and nano, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40 (2007) 6312–6327.  Back to cited text no. 9
M. Li, H. Bala, X. Lv, et al, Direct synthesis of monodispersed ZnO nanoparticles in an aqueous solution, Mater. Lett. 61 (2007) 690–693.  Back to cited text no. 10
T.C. Taranath, N.P. Bheemanagouda, T.U. Santosh, et al, Cytotoxicity of zinc nanoparticles fabricated by Justicia adhatoda L. on root tips of Allium cepa L.—a model approach, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 22 (2015) 8611–8617.  Back to cited text no. 11
G. Sangeetha, S. Rajeshwari, R. Venckatesh, Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles by Aloe barbadensis miller leaf extract: structure and optical properties, Mater. Res. Bull. 12 (2011) 2560–2566.  Back to cited text no. 12
S.S. Shankar, A. Rai, A. Ahmad, et al, Controlling the optical properties of lemongrass extract synthesized gold nanotriangles and potential application in infraredabsorbing optical coatings, Chem. Mater. 17 (3) (2005) 566– 572.  Back to cited text no. 13
S.S. Shankar, A. Rai, A. Ahmad, et al, Rapid synthesis of Au, Ag, and bimetallic Au core–Ag shell nanoparticles using neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf broth, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 275 (2004) 496–502.  Back to cited text no. 14
N.P. Bheemanagouda, T.C. Taranath, Antituberculosis activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized by using aqueous leaf extract of Limonia acidissima L., Int. J. Pharm. BioSci. 7 (2016) 89–97.  Back to cited text no. 15
K. Bahrami, M.M. Khodaei, A. Nejati, One-pot synthesis of 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted and 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles by zinc oxide as efficient and reusable catalyst, Monatsh. Chem. 142 (2011) 159–162.  Back to cited text no. 16
R. Tayebee, F. Cheravi, M. Mirzaee, et al, Commercial zinc Oxide (Zn2+) as an efficient and environmentally benign catalyst for homogeneous benzoylation of hydroxyl functional groups, Chin. J. Chem. 28 (2010) 1247–1252.  Back to cited text no. 17
C.R. Gorla, N. Emanetoglu, W.S. Liang, et al, Structural, optical, and surface acoustic wave properties of epitaxial ZnO films grown on (01–12) sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, J. Appl. Phys. 85 (1999) 2595–2602.  Back to cited text no. 18
B.J. Marais, K. Lonnroth, S.D. Lawn, et al, Tuberculosis comorbidity with communicable and non-communicable diseases: integrating health services and control efforts, Lancet Infect. Dis. 13 (2013) 436–448.  Back to cited text no. 19
I.G. Sia, M.L. Wieland, Current concepts in the management of tuberculosis, Mayo Clin. Proc. 86 (2011) 348–361.  Back to cited text no. 20
R.B. Rock, M. Olin, C.A. Baker, et al, Central nervous system tuberculosis: pathogenesis and clinical aspects, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 21 (2008) 243–261.  Back to cited text no. 21
L.C. du Toit, V. Pillay, M.P. Danckwerts, Tuberculosis chemotherapy: current drug delivery approaches, Respir. Res. 7 (2006) 118.  Back to cited text no. 22
C. Aagaard, J. Dietrich, M. Doherty, et al, TB vaccines: current status and future perspectives, Immunol. Cell Biol. 87 (2009) 279–286.  Back to cited text no. 23
Z. Ahmad, R. Pandey, S. Sharma, et al, Alginate nanoparticles as antituberculosis drug carriers: formulation development, pharmacokinetics and therapeutic potential, Indian J. Chest Dis. Allied Sci. 48 (2006) 171–176.  Back to cited text no. 24
M. Rajan, V. Raj, Encapsulation, characterization and in-vitro release of anti-tuberculosis drug using chitosan-poly ethylene glycol nanoparticles, Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 4 (2012) 255–259.  Back to cited text no. 25
A. Banu, V. Rathod, Biosynthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles and their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, J. Nanomed. Biother. Discov. 3 (2013) 1–5.  Back to cited text no. 26
T.K. Chatterjee, Herbal Options, third ed., Books and Allied (P) Ltd., Calcutta, 2000, pp. 203–256.  Back to cited text no. 27
C.D. Kamat, K.R. Khandelwal, S.L. Bodhankar, et al, Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Feronia elephantum Correa (Rutaceae) against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats, J. Nat. Remedies 3 (2003) 148–154.  Back to cited text no. 28
B.M.R. Bandara, C.M. Hewage, D.H.L.W. Jayamanne, et al, Biological activity of some steam distillates from leaves of ten species of rutaceous plants, J. Nat. Sci. Counc. 18 (1990) 71–77.  Back to cited text no. 29
N.K.B. Adikaram, Y. Abhayawardhane, A.A.L. Gunatilaka, et al, Antifungal activity, acid and sugar content in the wood apple (Limonia acidissima) and their relation to fungal development, Plant Pathol. 38 (2007) 258–265.  Back to cited text no. 30
K.H. Kim, S.K. Ha, S.Y. Kim, et al, Limodissimin A: a new dimeric coumarin from Limonia acidissima, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 30 (2009) 2135–2137.  Back to cited text no. 31
R. Gupta, S. Johri, A.M. Saxena, Effect of ethanolic extract of Feronia elephantum Correa fruits on blood glucose level in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, Nat. Prod. Rad. 8 (2009) 32–33.  Back to cited text no. 32
R.K. Joshi, V.M. Badakar, S.D. Kolkute, et al, Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the leaves of Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) from north west Karnataka, Nat. Prod. Commun. 6 (2011) 141–143.  Back to cited text no. 33
M.C.S. Lourenço, M.V.N. de Souza, A.C. Pinheiro, et al, Evaluation of anti-tubercular activity of nicotinic and isoniazid analogues, Arkivoc (2007) 181–191.  Back to cited text no. 34
K. Nejati, Z. Rezvani, R. Pakizevand, Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and investigation of the ionic template effect on their size and shape, Int. Nano Lett. 1 (2011) 75–81.  Back to cited text no. 35
H. Kumar, R. Rani, Structural and optical characterization of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by microemulsion route international letters of chemistry, Int. Lett. Chem. Phys. Astron. 14 (2013) 26–36.  Back to cited text no. 36
A. Kumar, A.K. Pandey, S.S. Singh, et al, Cellular uptake and mutagenic potential of metal oxide nanoparticles in bacterial cells, Chemosphere 83 (2011) 1124–1132.  Back to cited text no. 37
S.H. Nam, S.W. Kim, Y.J. An, No evidence of the genotoxic potential of gold, silver, Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the SOS chromotest, J. Appl. Toxicol. 33 (2013) 1061–1069.  Back to cited text no. 38
A. Kumar, A.K. Pandey, S.S. Singh, et al, Engineered ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles induce oxidative stress and DNA damage leading to reduced viability of Escherichia coli, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 51 (2011) 1872–1888.  Back to cited text no. 39
Q.L. Feng, J. Wu, G.Q. Chen, et al, A mechanistic study of the antibacterial effect of silver ions on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52 (2000) 662–668.  Back to cited text no. 40
S. Mohanty, P. Jena, R. Mehta, et al, Antimicrobial peptides and biogenic silver nanoparticles kill mycobacterium without eliciting DNA damage and cytotoxicity in mouse macrophages, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57 (2013) 3688–3698.  Back to cited text no. 41
M. Yamanaka, K. Hara, J. Kudo, Bactericidal actions of a silver ion solution on Escherichia coli studied by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy and proteomic analysis, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71 (2005) 7589–7593.  Back to cited text no. 42
A. Kumar, P.K. Vemula, P.M. Ajayan, et al, Silver-nanoparticle embedded antimicrobial paints based on vegetable oil, Nat. Mater. 7 (2008) 236–241.  Back to cited text no. 43
K.R. Raghupathi, R.T. Koodali, A.C. Manna, Size-dependent bacterial growth inhibition and mechanism of antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles, Langmuir 27 (2011) 4020– 4028.  Back to cited text no. 44
I. Azuma, Y. Yamamura, Studies on the firmly bound lipids of human tubercle bacillus. II. Isolation of arabinose mycolate and identification of its chemical structure, J. Biochem. 53 (1963) 275–278.  Back to cited text no. 45
K. Takayama, E.L. Armstrong, Metabolic role of free mycolic acids in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, J. Bacteriol. 130 (1977) 569– 570.  Back to cited text no. 46
J.O. Kilburn, J. Greenberg, Effect of ethambutol on the viable cell count in Mycobacterium smegmatis, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 11 (1977) 534–540.  Back to cited text no. 47
K. Takayama, E.L. Armstrong, K.A. Kunugi, et al, Inhibition by ethambutol of mycolic acid transfer into the cell wall of Mycobacterium smegmatis, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 16 (1979) 240–242.  Back to cited text no. 48


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9]

  [Table 1], [Table 2]

This article has been cited by
1 Enzymes and phytochemicals from neem extract robustly tuned the photocatalytic activity of ZnO for the degradation of malachite green (MG) in aqueous media
Muhammad Ali Bhatti,Aneela Tahira,Ali dad Chandio,Khalida Faryal Almani,Adeel Liaquat Bhatti,Baradi Waryani,Ayman Nafady,Zafar Hussain Ibupoto
Research on Chemical Intermediates. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Evaluation of antimycobacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of CuO nanoparticles through cobalt doping
H. M. Sathyananda, P. A. Prashanth, G. K. Prashanth, M. S. Dileep, S. R. Boselin Prabhu, B. M. Nagabhushana, C. Shivakumara, H. G. Nagendra
Applied Nanoscience. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Nanocarriers-based immobilization of enzymes for industrial application
Kiran Thakur,Chandrika Attri,Amit Seth
3 Biotech. 2021; 11(10)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: from Biosynthesis, Characterization, and Optimization to Synergistic Antibacterial Potential
Falak Thakral,Gurpreet Kaur Bhatia,Hardeep Singh Tuli,Anil Kumar Sharma,Shivani Sood
Current Pharmacology Reports. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Self-assembled diphenylalanine-zinc oxide hybrid nanostructures as a highly selective luminescent biosensor for trypsin detection
Nandini Swaminathan,Nallin Sharma,Yowan Nerthigan,Hui-Fen Wu
Applied Surface Science. 2021; 554: 149600
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Biofabricated nanoscale ZnO and their prospective in disease suppression and crop growth of Brassica species: A review
Shailja Dhiman, Ajit Varma, Arti Goel
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 2021; 37: 102171
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Mesoporous Ag/ZnO Hybrid Cages Derived from ZIF-8 for Enhanced Photocatalytic and Antibacterial Activities
Junwei Cui,Dapeng Wu,Zhenyun Li,Guoan Zhao,Jinshui Wang,Le Wang,Bingxuan Niu
Ceramics International. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Greener synthesis and medical applications of metal oxide nanoparticles
Somayeh Marouzi,Zahra Sabouri,Majid Darroudi
Ceramics International. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Extensive study on plant mediated green synthesis of metal nanoparticles and their application for degradation of cationic and anionic dyes
Mrinalini Parmar, Mallika Sanyal
Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management. 2021; : 100624
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Multifunctional applications of Nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles synthesized by facile green combustion method using Limonia acidissima natural fruit juice
M.S. Sunil Kumar,T.L. Soundarya,T.L. Udayabhanu,G. Nagaraju,G.K. Raghu,N.D. Rekha,Fahad A. Alharthi,B. Nirmala
Inorganica Chimica Acta. 2021; 515: 120059
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Free-radical scavenging activity properties of ZnO sub-micron particles: Size effect and kinetics
Citlali Alejandra Marin-Flores,Odin Celestino Rodríguez-Nava,Margarita García-Hernández,Rosario Ruiz-Guerrero,Fernando Juárez-López,Angel de Jesús Morales-Ramírez
Journal of Materials Research and Technology. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Applications of phytogenic ZnO nanoparticles: A review on recent advancements
AnupamaR. Prasad,Linda Williams,Julia Garvasis,K.O. Shamsheera,Sabeel M. Basheer,Mathew Kuruvilla,Abraham Joseph
Journal of Molecular Liquids. 2021; : 115805
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Eco-friendly synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Rivina humilis leaf extract and their biomedical applications
Angusamy Annapoorni, Arunagirinadhan Koodalingam, Manikandan Beulaja, Gowrikumar Saiprasad, Palanivel Chitra, Arumainathan Stephen, Subramanian Palanisamy, Narayanasamy Marimuthu Prabhu, SangGuan You, Sundaram Janarthanan, Ramar Manikandan
Process Biochemistry. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Prospective of modified polymeric MgO/ZnO nanocomposite sensor for potentiometric determination of chronic myelogenous leukemia medication
Salma A. Al-Tamimi
Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. 2021; : 112949
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Characterisation of zinc oxide nanoparticles–herbal synthesised coated with Ocimum tenuiflorum
M. Bala Chennaiah,K. Dilip Kumar,B. Sudheer Kumar,Srinivasa Rao Tanneeru
Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Salvia officinalis Leaf Extract and Their Photocatalytic and Antifungal Activities
May Abdullah Abomuti, Ekram Y. Danish, Ahmad Firoz, Nazim Hasan, Maqsood Ahmad Malik
Biology. 2021; 10(11): 1075
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Green Synthesis and Applications of ZnO and TiO2 Nanostructures
Rosana A. Gonçalves,Rosimara P. Toledo,Nirav Joshi,Olivia M. Berengue
Molecules. 2021; 26(8): 2236
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Plant-Mediated Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Advances in the New Millennium towards Understanding Their Therapeutic Role in Biomedical Applications
Mahadevamurthy Murali, Nataraj Kalegowda, Hittanahallikoppal G. Gowtham, Mohammad Azam Ansari, Mohammad N. Alomary, Saad Alghamdi, Natarajamurthy Shilpa, Sudarshana B. Singh, M. C. Thriveni, Mohammed Aiyaz, Nataraju Angaswamy, Nanjaiah Lakshmidevi, Syed F. Adil, Mohammad R. Hatshan, Kestur Nagaraj Amruthesh
Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(10): 1662
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Antimicrobial Activity of Silver and Zinc Nanoparticles Mediated by Eggplant Green Calyx
Gouda H. Attia,Hamad S. Alyami,Mohamed A.A. Orabi,Ahmed H. Gaara,Mohamed A. El Raey
International Journal of Pharmacology. 2020; 16(3): 236
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Surface Microstructure of Nanocomposite from Chitosan Loaded with ZnO Nanoparticle by Atomic Force Microscopy
Ata Aditya Wardana,Fumina Tanaka,Fumihiko Tanaka
Key Engineering Materials. 2020; 862: 83
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Cinnamomum verum Bark Extract Mediated Green Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Potentiality
Mohammad Azam Ansari,Mahadevamurthy Murali,Daruka Prasad,Mohammad A. Alzohairy,Ahmad Almatroudi,Mohammad N. Alomary,Arakere Chunchegowda Udayashankar,Sudarshana Brijesh Singh,Sarah Mousa Maadi Asiri,Bagepalli Shivaram Ashwini,Hittanahallikoppal Gajendramurthy Gowtham,Nataraj Kalegowda,Kestur Nagaraj Amruthesh,Thimappa Ramachandrappa Lakshmeesha,Siddapura Ramachandrappa Niranjana
Biomolecules. 2020; 10(2): 336
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Eco-Friendly Photocatalysts for Degradation of Dyes
Gee Een Lau,Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah,Wan Amir Nizam Wan Ahmad,Suvik Assaw,Alvin Lim Teik Zheng
Catalysts. 2020; 10(10): 1129
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 A review on green synthesis and characterization technique for ferrite nanoparticles and their applications
Vishal Ashok Pandit,Gahjanan Radhegovind Repe,Jyoti Dagadu Bhamre,Nandkishor D. Chaudhari
Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2020; 1644: 012009
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Synthesis and Characterization of Pure and Capped Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles using Pesidium Gujava Leaf Extract
M. Kokilavani M. Kokilavani,K. Surya K. Surya,V. Kalaiselvi V. Kalaiselvi,N. Vidhya N. Vidhya,V. Ramya V. Ramya
Journal of Environmental Nanotechnology. 2020; 9(2): 30
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Mycogenic Metal Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Mycobacterioses
Marta Filipa Simões,Cristiane Angélica Ottoni,André Antunes
Antibiotics. 2020; 9(9): 569
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Preparation and Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract of Sambucus ebulus
Sanaz Alamdari,Morteza Sasani Ghamsari,Chan Lee,Wooje Han,Hyung-Ho Park,Majid Jafar Tafreshi,Hosein Afarideh,Mohammad Hosein Majles Ara
Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(10): 3620
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 ZnO Nanoparticles and Rifampicin Synergistically Damage the Membrane of Mycobacteria
Nishita Mistry,Rajdip Bandyopadhyaya,Sarika Mehra
ACS Applied Nano Materials. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Microwave-assisted green synthesis, characterization and adsorption studies on metal oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Ficus Benghalensis plant leaf extracts
Arunkumar Lagashetty,Sangappa K. Ganiger,Preeti R. K.,Shashidhar Reddy,Malathesh Pari
New Journal of Chemistry. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Approaches to treating tuberculosis by encapsulating metal ions and anti-mycobacterial drugs utilizing nano- and microparticle technologies
Terry Tetley,Jorge Bernardino de la Serna,Sonia Antoranz Contera,Khaled H. Alzahabi,Omar Usmani,Theoni K. Georgiou,Mary P. Ryan,Brian D. Robertson,Teresa D. Tetley,Alexandra E. Porter
Emerging Topics in Life Sciences. 2020; 4(6): 581
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Performance of Membrane Photocatalytic Reactor Incorporated with ZnO-Cymbopogon citratus in Treating Palm Oil Mill Secondary Effluent
Dilaeleyana Abu Bakar Sidik,Nur Hanis Hayati Hairom,Mohd Khairul Ahmad,Rais Hanizam Madon,Abdul Wahab Mohammad
Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Boosting low temperature propane oxidation on bamboo-mediated biosynthesis of LaCoO3 via the optimized chelating effect
Daifeng Lin,Wei Li,Xiaoshan Feng,Yinye Chen,Xuanxu Tao,Yongjin Luo,Xinshu Xia,Baoquan Huang,Qingrong Qian,Qinghua Chen
Molecular Catalysis. 2020; : 111315
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Application of a novel biochar adsorbent and membrane to the selective separation of phosphate from phosphate-rich wastewaters
Rubaba Mohammadi,Masoumeh Hezarjaribi,Deepika Lakshmi Ramasamy,Mika Sillanpää,Arto Pihjalamääki
Chemical Engineering Journal. 2020; : 126494
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Tunable optical linear&nonlinear, magnetic and Faraday rotation properties: Comparison of ZnO based DMSs alloys in diamagnetic solid matrix
Qiuling Chen,Hui Wang
Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2020; : 156394
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Synthesis of zinc oxide using Agaricus bisporus and its in-vitro biological activities
S. Mohana,S. Sumathi
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2020; 8(5): 104192
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Biogenic synthesis of aromatic cardamom-wrapped zinc oxide nanoparticles and their potential antibacterial and mosquito larvicidal activity: An effective eco-friendly approach
Viswanathan Vinotha,Mariappan Yazhiniprabha,Daniel Selva Raj,Shahid Mahboob,Khalid A. Al-Ghanim,Fahad Al-Misned,Marimuthu Govindarajan,Baskaralingam Vaseeharan
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2020; 8(6): 104466
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Evaluation of Magnesium Oxide and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles against Multi-drug-resistance Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Tofigh Yaghubi kalurazi,Alireza Jafari
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Bio-synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles for anti-tuberculosis agent: Scientifically unexplored
S. Vijayakumar,M. Nilavukkarasi,B. Sakthivel
Gene Reports. 2020; : 100764
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 The potential control strategies of membrane fouling and performance in membrane photocatalytic reactor (MPR) for treating palm oil mill secondary effluent (POMSE)
Dilaeleyana Abu Bakar Sidik,Nur Hanis Hayati Hairom,Abdul Wahab Mohammad,Norhazimah Abdul Halim,Mohd Khairul Ahmad,Sofiah Hamzah,Noralfishah Sulaiman
Chemical Engineering Research and Design. 2020; 162: 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Green Synthesis and Biomedical Applications
Sahana Sadhasivam,Megala Shanmugam,Pillai Divya Umamaheswaran,Anbazhagan Venkattappan,Anusuya Shanmugam
Journal of Cluster Science. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 Biofabrication of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles from Two Different Zinc Sources and Their Antimicrobial Activity
Arun Kumar Khajuria,Monika Kumari,Anuj Kandwal,Abhay Singh,N. S. Bisht
BioNanoScience. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Investigation of improved dielectric and thermal properties of ternary nanocomposite PMMA/MXene/ZnO fabricated by in-situ bulk polymerization
Yasir Ul Haq,Imran Murtaza,Sadaf Mazhar,Naeem Ahmad,Awais A. Qarni,Zeeshan Ul Haq,Shahid A. Khan,Mahmood Iqbal
Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2020; : 49197
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Cynara scolymus Leaves: Enhanced Hemolytic, Antimicrobial, Antiproliferative, and Photocatalytic Activity
Mariappan Rajapriya,Sundararaj Aruna Sharmili,Raju Baskar,Ravichandran Balaji,Naiyf S. Alharbi,Shine Kadaikunnan,Jamal M. Khaled,Khalid F. Alanzi,Baskaralingam Vaseeharan
Journal of Cluster Science. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Chitosan capped ZnO nanoparticles with cell specific apoptosis induction through P53 activation and G2/M arrest in breast cancer cells – In vitro approaches
Jaganathan Anitha,Rajendran Selvakumar,Kadarkari Murugan
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2019; 136: 686
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Engineered nanomaterials for water decontamination and purification: From lab to products
Shams Tabrez Khan,Abdul Malik
Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2019; 363: 295
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using insulin-rich leaf extract: Anti-diabetic, antibiofilm and anti-oxidant properties
Viswanathan Vinotha,Arokiadhas Iswarya,Rajagopalan Thaya,Marimuthu Govindarajan,Naiyf S. Alharbi,Shine Kadaikunnan,Jamal M. Khaled,Mohammed N. Al-Anbr,Baskaralingam Vaseeharan
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2019; 197: 111541
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B dye by polymeric films containing ZnO, Ag nanoparticles and polypyrrole
Viorica E. Podasca,Tinca Buruiana,Emil C. Buruiana
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2019; 371: 188
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 New avenues of controlling microbial infections through anti-microbial and anti-biofilm potentials of green mono-and multi-metallic nanoparticles: A review
Palashpriya Das,Vijayshree S. Karankar
Journal of Microbiological Methods. 2019; 167: 105766
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Phyto-fabricated ZnO nanoparticles from Canthium dicoccum (L.) for Antimicrobial, Anti-tuberculosis and Antioxidant activity
C. Mahendra,Mohana N. Chandra,M. Murali,M.R. Abhilash,Singh S. Brijesh,S. Satish,M.S Sudarshana
Process Biochemistry. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Biosynthesis protocols for colloidal metal oxide nanoparticles
Nkosingiphile Zikalala,Kabo Matshetshe,Sundararajan Parani,Oluwatobi S. Oluwafemi
Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects. 2018; 16: 288
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 A Review on Green Synthesis, Biomedical Applications, and Toxicity Studies of ZnO NPs
V. N. Kalpana,V. Devi Rajeswari
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications. 2018; 2018: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 Neoteric environmental detoxification of organic pollutants and pathogenic microbes via green synthesized ZnO nanoparticles
Shaan Bibi Jaffri,Khuram Shahzad Ahmad
Environmental Technology. 2018; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
52 ZnO nano-cages derived from ZIF-8 with enhanced anti mycobacterium-tuberculosis activities
Junwei Cui,Le Wang,Yongqin Han,Weiguo Liu,Zhenyun Li,Zheng Guo,Yuansen Hu,Zheng Chang,Qipeng Yuan,Jinshui Wang
Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2018; 766: 619
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Zinc oxide phytase nanocomposites as contributory tools to improved thermostability and shelflife
Sharrel Rebello,A.N. Anoopkumar,Sreedev Puthur,Raveendran Sindhu,Parameswaran Binod,Ashok Pandey,Embalil Mathachan Aneesh
Bioresource Technology Reports. 2018; 3: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 Mechanistic study on antibacterial action of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using green route
Helena Happy Agarwal,Helena Soumya Menon,S. Venkat Kumar,S. Rajeshkumar
Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2018; 286: 60
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
55 Cure of tuberculosis using nanotechnology: An overview
Rout George Kerry,Sushanto Gouda,Bikram Sil,Gitishree Das,Han-Seung Shin,Gajanan Ghodake,Jayanta Kumar Patra
Journal of Microbiology. 2018; 56(5): 287
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 Euphorbia heterophylla (L.) mediated fabrication of ZnO NPs: Characterization and Evaluation of antibacterial and anticancer properties
K. Lingaraju,H. Raja Naika,H. Nagabhushana,G Nagaraju
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 Traditional and Ethnobotanical Dermatology Practices in Myanmar
Min Min Aye,Madison Grinnell,Morgan Rabach,Myat Sanda Kyaw
Clinics in Dermatology. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
58 A review on biogenic synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using plant extracts and microbes: A prospect towards green chemistry
Shakeel Ahmed,Shakeel Annu,Saif Ali Chaudhry,Saiqa Ikram
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2017; 166: 272
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
59 The Relationship between the Mechanism of Zinc Oxide Crystallization and Its Antimicrobial Properties for the Surface Modification of Surgical Meshes
Marta Fiedot,Irena Maliszewska,Olga Rac-Rumijowska,Patrycja Suchorska-Wozniak,Agnieszka Lewinska,Helena Teterycz
Materials. 2017; 10(4): 353
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
60 Antitubercular activity of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion synthesis using lemon juice as bio-fuel
Prashanth Gopala Krishna,Prashanth Paduvarahalli Ananthaswamy,Priyanka Trivedi,Vinita Chaturvedi,Nagabhushana Bhangi Mutta,Ananda Sannaiah,Amani Erra,Tejabhiram Yadavalli
Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2017; 75: 1026
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
61 Limonia acidissima L. leaf mediated synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles and their antibacterial activities
Bheemanagouda N. Patil,T.C. Taranath
Microbial Pathogenesis. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
62 A review on green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles – An eco-friendly approach
Happy Agarwal,S. Venkat Kumar,S. Rajeshkumar
Resource-Efficient Technologies. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
63 Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using plant leaf extract against urinary tract infection pathogen
J. Santhoshkumar,S. Venkat Kumar,S. Rajeshkumar
Resource-Efficient Technologies. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
64 Functional Polymeric Membrane Containing Inorganic Nanoparticle: Recent Advances and Applications
Sedra Tul Muntha,Ayesha Kausar,Muhammad Siddiq
Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering. 2017; 56(4): 364
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
65 Laurus nobilis leaf extract mediated green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles: Characterization and biomedical applications
Sekar Vijayakumar,Baskaralingam Vaseeharan,Balasubramanian Malaikozhundan,Malaikkarasu Shobiya
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2016; 84: 1213
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Materials and me...
Results and disc...
Conflicts of int...
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded511    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 65    

Recommend this journal