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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 239-247

Human genetic background in susceptibility to tuberculosis


1 Mycobacteriology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Mycobacteriology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD); Department of Biotechnology, School of Advanced Technology in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Poopak Farnia
Mycobacteriology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_118_20

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Tuberculosis (TB), especially in developing countries, is a major threat to human health. The pathogenesis of TB remains poorly understood, and <5%–10% of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) will develop clinical disease. The human genetic factors contributing to susceptibility or resistance to TB pathogenesis have been investigated by high-throughput and low-throughput association studies. Genetic polymorphisms of several genes including TLR, IGRM, VDR, ASAP1, AGMO, FOXP1, and UBLCP1 effect on the disease phenotype and also the outcome of TB treatment. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), which negatively regulated gene expression at the posttranscriptionally level, have gained increasing attention due to their altered expression in various human diseases, including some infections. They are crucial posttranscriptional regulators of immune response in both innate and adaptive immunity. It has been established in recent studies that the host immune response against MTB is regulated by many miRNAs, most of which are induced by MTB infection. Moreover, differential expression of miRNAs in TB patients may help distinguish between TB patients and healthy individuals or latent TB. In this review, we summarize and discuss the literature and highlight the role of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms and miRNAs that have been associated with TB infection.


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